Theories Of Career Development Theories

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Career development Theories A theory is a way organizing and systematizing what is known about a phenomenon. It is, in fact, “a rationalized set of assumptions or hypotheses that provides a person with tools that can be utilized to explain the past and predict the future” (Johnson, 2000). Therefore, theories provide direction and when tested and supported, can assist in expanding our knowledge. Career development is the process of integrating the extraneous situation consisting of social structures of family, education and works with the self and the self- efficacy and brings about changes in one’s personal, social and vocational situation. Career development is not just a decision to enter a particular line of work; it reveals a person accumulated…show more content…
They also concern with career adjustments people make over time. The career development theories are of great value for teacher and counsellor because they need to seek constantly for insight into the reasons that stimulate students to make certain career choices. Only by doing so, they will be able to understand and help them. Researches have been conducted in an attempt to develop systematic theory of career development so that the students can get proper guidance. According to Johnson (2000), Career development theories can be grouped into two categories: Structural and Developmental. 1.2.1 Structural theories Structural theories try to describe characteristics of both the person and the work place. A systematic examination of these characteristics is undertaken to help individual’s “match” their characteristics to the most suitable environment. The following structural theories are discussed briefly: Trait-and-Factor…show more content…
According to Holland (1985), the choice of a career is an extension of one’s personality into the world of work. Individuals choose careers that satisfy their preferred personal orientations. Holland developed six modal personal styles and six matching work envi¬ronments: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enter¬prising, and conventional. A person is attracted to the particular role demand of an occupational environ-ment that meets his or her needs. For example, some¬one who is socially oriented would seek out a work environment that provides interactions with others, such as nursing in a hospital setting. Holland and his colleagues have developed a number of instruments (e.g., the Self-Directed Search) designed to assist in identifying individual personality traits and matching those traits to occupational groups. Holland’s theory assesses each individual in terms of two or three most prominent personality types and matching each type with the environmental aspects of potential careers. It is predicted that the better the match, the better the congruence, satisfaction, and persistence (Holland, 1985). Holland also elaborated five secondary assumptions which he calls key concepts that describe the theory. These assumptions
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