Career Development is a “continuous lifelong process of developmental experiences that focuses on seeking, obtaining and processing information about self, occupational and educational alternatives, life styles and role options” (Hansen, 1976). The above statement I have follow through my career .
Some types of career development theories include trait and factor, life-span, and social cognitive (Sharf 1997). This section looks at some of the issues surrounding the applicability of these theories in regard to gender, race, and class.
The Stages of Career Development
The Cambridge Online dictionary defines career development as the process of learning and improving your skills so that you can perform your job better and progress to better jobs (Cambridge, 2011). However, my articles on career development have a slightly different view. My article states that career development happens in stages, and it has influencing factors (Gohdes, 1997-2000). Therefore, I will discuss these elements along with its main points.
Drawing the concept from the above definition of career development provided by national career development association (2003) is reveal that there are various factors which influence the appropriate career development, included as ‘psychological, sociological, educational, and economic
The essay briefly aims to explore the meaning of career Management/Development and its importance for both individual and organisations, and then it will evaluate the relevance of career management/development as an integral part of HR activities from the mutual perspectives of the organisation and individual employees. This essay will also explore the barriers to achieving career management/development practice in organisations and how these barriers could be overcome. Finally the essay will highlight the career management practices of King Specialist Faisal Hospital and Research Centre (public sector), which will lead to the conclusion.
What is career in an era of globalisations?
The Values Scale and Salience Inventory can measure an adolescent’s interests and values that may lead to career exploration, which will be discussed later in this section. The Career Development Inventory measures maturity and development. The Career Development Inventory has five subscales; Career Planning, Career Exploration, Decision-Making and World-of-Work information and Knowledge of the preferred Occupational Group (Scharf, 2013). This instrument focuses on measuring what the adolescent has done to help make their career decision, it also emphasizes not just what they have actually done but what they think they have done (Scharf, 2013). This is important in measuring their career maturity, the more thought given is reflective of high level of maturity (Scharf, 2013). The Career Maturity Inventory (CMI) developed from Super’s (1955) earlier theory mentioned above, provides a total score for career choice readiness, three scale scores reflecting career adaptability dimensions of concern, curiosity, and confidence, and a score reflecting relational style in forming occupational choices (Savickas and Porfeli, 2011).
It is simple to look at an individual’s life and analyze and critique their choices based on our own opinions and experiences. Is that fair? No. We may see their actions clearly but the reasoning behind these is what we should focus on when it comes to judging someone’s behavior or circumstances. A common judgment made about a person is based on their career. In our society, it would behoove us to look at the path that leads to becoming a doctor instead of a drug dealer.
Career management plays important role in career development. Career management is done with involved taking some necessary steps to reach the career plan and commonly more focusing on the ability of the organization able to do for their employee to increase their career development (Werner & DeSimone, 2009). Career plan is usually able to be performed, at least in some apart, through the training program which implemented by the organization. Career management process contained four steps which are self-assessment, reality check, goal setting and action planning (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) emphasizes cognitive-person variables that enable people to influence their own career development, as well as extra-person, contextual variables, which enhance or constrain personal agency (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). SCCT attempts to understand the processes through which people form interests, make choices, and achieve varying levels of success in educational and occupational pursuits (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 2000). Cognitive-person variables include qualities such as self-efficacy and personal goals that enable people to exercise personal control or agency in their own career development; while environmental variables consider a person’s physical attributes, features of their environment, and particular learning experiences which have influence on career-related interests and choice behaviors. Environmental variables can be further divided into two basic categories according to their relative proximity to the career choice-making process. Distal factors are those which have had an impact on the learning experiences through which expectations have developed, for instance the type of career role models to which one is exposed and the support or encouragement one receives for engaging in
As we have learned in class, career counseling must have a base or framework in traditional theoretical counseling. Furthermore, as Niles and Harris-Bowlsbey mentioned, career counseling is like a sub set of normal counseling that may require many of the same aspects of regular mental health counseling (2009, p. 242). Through out my counseling development I have clicked with solution-focused Therapy as my main mode of counseling. As I have adopted that as main focus it seemed logical for me that I would want to research more. On of the questions that I have pondered is how does solution focused therapy differ form traditional modes on counseling, in terms of career development? I found a journal article that centers on that very question. The article is derived from a college in South Africa that compares and contrasts the two modalities of traditional career counseling and post-modern career counseling.