Theories Of Career Development Theories

explanatory Essay
1315 words
1315 words

Career development Theories A theory is a way organizing and systematizing what is known about a phenomenon. It is, in fact, “a rationalized set of assumptions or hypotheses that provides a person with tools that can be utilized to explain the past and predict the future” (Johnson, 2000). Therefore, theories provide direction and when tested and supported, can assist in expanding our knowledge. Career development is the process of integrating the extraneous situation consisting of social structures of family, education and works with the self and the self- efficacy and brings about changes in one’s personal, social and vocational situation. Career development is not just a decision to enter a particular line of work; it reveals a person accumulated …show more content…

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that structural theories try to describe characteristics of both the person and the work place. a systematic examination of these characteristics is undertaken to help individuals match their characteristics to the most suitable environment.
  • Explains the trait-and-factor theory, which focuses on individual traits but does not account for changes in values, interest, skills, achievement, and personality over a lifetime.
  • Explains holland's theory that the choice of a career is an extension of one’s personality into the world of work.
  • Explains that consistency is the degree of relatedness personality type and environmental models. some pairs or types have more common than others.
  • Explains that differentiation is the degree to which a person is well defined. persons and environments differ in degree of differentiation and saturation.
  • Explains that identity refers to the clarity and stability of goals, interests, talents, etc. in the case of persons.
  • Defines congruence as correspondence between personality type and environment. different types of personalities require different environments to flourish.
  • Explains that people orientated towards the realistic type prefer acting out problems or being physically involved in performing work tasks. they avoid tasks involving interpersonal and verbal skills and see concrete rather abstract problem situations.
  • Explains that investigative type prefers to avoid close interpersonal contact, though the quality of their avoidance seems different from that of realistic colleagues.
  • Explains that artistic types dislike structure and prefer tasks emphasizing physical skills and interpersonal interactions. they tend to be introspective and social in manner of the investigative but differ in that their interests are more stereotypically feminine than masculine.
  • Explains that social types gravitate towards activities that involve promoting the health, education, and well-being of others. they are socially skilled and averse to isolative activities.
  • Explains that enterprising types use their skills for self-gain rather than to support others, as do social types. they aspire to attain power and status while conventional types honor others for it.
  • Explains that conventional types prefer structure and order and seek interpersonal and work situations where structure abounds.
  • Explains that a theory organizes and systematizes what is known about the phenomenon. it provides direction and when tested and supported, can assist in expanding our knowledge.
  • Explains that calculus refers to the relationship between types and environments in hexagon model. holland identified six categories in which personality tpyes and job environments can be classified.

They also concern with career adjustments people make over time. The career development theories are of great value for teacher and counsellor because they need to seek constantly for insight into the reasons that stimulate students to make certain career choices. Only by doing so, they will be able to understand and help them. Researches have been conducted in an attempt to develop systematic theory of career development so that the students can get proper guidance. According to Johnson (2000), Career development theories can be grouped into two categories: Structural and Developmental. 1.2.1 Structural theories Structural theories try to describe characteristics of both the person and the work place. A systematic examination of these characteristics is undertaken to help individual’s “match” their characteristics to the most suitable environment. The following structural theories are discussed briefly: Trait-and-Factor …show more content…

According to Holland (1985), the choice of a career is an extension of one’s personality into the world of work. Individuals choose careers that satisfy their preferred personal orientations. Holland developed six modal personal styles and six matching work envi¬ronments: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enter¬prising, and conventional. A person is attracted to the particular role demand of an occupational environ-ment that meets his or her needs. For example, some¬one who is socially oriented would seek out a work environment that provides interactions with others, such as nursing in a hospital setting. Holland and his colleagues have developed a number of instruments (e.g., the Self-Directed Search) designed to assist in identifying individual personality traits and matching those traits to occupational groups. Holland’s theory assesses each individual in terms of two or three most prominent personality types and matching each type with the environmental aspects of potential careers. It is predicted that the better the match, the better the congruence, satisfaction, and persistence (Holland, 1985). Holland also elaborated five secondary assumptions which he calls key concepts that describe the theory. These assumptions

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