The essay briefly aims to explore the meaning of career Management/Development and its importance for both individual and organisations, and then it will evaluate the relevance of career management/development as an integral part of HR activities from the mutual perspectives of the organisation and individual employees. This essay will also explore the barriers to achieving career management/development practice in organisations and how these barriers could be overcome. Finally the essay will highlight the career management practices of King Specialist Faisal Hospital and Research Centre (public sector), which will lead to the conclusion.
What is career in an era of globalisations?
Career is the total sequence of employment-related positions, roles, activities and experiences encountered by an individual (Jackson T. 2002, p.VIII). Career can also be conceptualised more broadly in terms of “the individual development in learning and work throughout life", and thus includes voluntary work and other life experience (Watt, 1996; in Torrington et al. 2008, p. 446).
People careers are developed in organisations; we can sense the characteristics of the traditional career in the typical traditional deal between organisation and employee, when employees offer loyalty, conformity and commitment while employers offer security of employment, career prospects, training and development and care in trouble, (Baruch, 2001, p. 544). Long term employment with hierarchy career development is mostly what characterises traditional careers. Walton (1999, p. 214), described the traditional career development in an organisation by saying; “Traditionally, many organisations had well established career progression routes for those see...
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...he, L. (2000) The future of careers, Roffey Park Institute.
Jackson, T. (2000). "Career Development", IPD.
King, Z. (2003), New or traditional careers? A study of UK graduates’preferences. Human Resource Management Journal, 13 (1), 5-26.
KFSH&RC website, 2010, www.kfshrc.edu.sa
Leung, A. S. (2004). Corporate restructuring and career advancement in Hong Kong. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15 (1), 163–179.
Park, Y. (2009). Factors influencing self-directed career management: an integrative investigation. Journal of European Industrial Training, 33 (7), 578-593.
Torrington, D. and Hall, L. (1998). Human Resource Management, 4th ed. Prentice Hall.
Torrington, D., Hall, L. and Taylor, S. (2008). Human Resource Management, 7th ed. Prentice Hall.
Walton, J. (1999). Strategic Human Resource Management. Pearson Education Limited.
In this essay, the author
Explains the essay aims to explore the meaning of career management/development and its importance for both individuals and organisations.
Explains changing one occupation of functional specialisation for another, or becoming a generalist rather than specialist.
Explains working in a different sector, country, organisation or two or more organisations instead of one.
Argues that the evidence to support the reality that careers have fundamentally changed is'shaky at best' according to torrington and mckenzie-davey.
Opines that the essay will address the debate of the responsibility of managing and developing individuals' careers in organisations in the past and at the present time, specifically in developed countries.
Argues that the responsibility of managing traditional careers in developed countries rests primarily on the organisations.
Argues that hr professionals can contribute to the career partnership by reducing internal boundaries to mobility, such as job description and specialist structures, and by building the organisational mechanism to ensure that people can develop their careers laterally.
Explains that career management practices at kfshrc can be seen in two major practices: promotion system and training and development practices.
Explains that kfshrc considers its employees as an important resource of candidates to fill future vacancies.
Analyzes baruch, y., "employability: a substitute for loyalty?" human resource development international, 1 4 ( 4), 543-566.
Explains conger, s., fostering a career development culture: reflections on the roles of managers, employees, and supervisors.
Explains king, z. (2003), new or traditional careers? a study of uk graduates’preferences. human resource management journal.
Cites torrington, d., hall, l. and taylor, s. (2008). human resource management, 7th ed. prentice hall.
Explains that career is the total sequence of employment-related positions, roles, activities, and experiences encountered by an individual. people careers are developed in organisations.
Explains the meaning and importance of career management/development and argues that organisations need to manage their people's careers and help them develop in their careers.
Explains the link between career management and other hr activities in an organisation.
Argues that career management is necessary for the achievement of strategic goals of the organisation, but there are a few barriers related to the individual.
Describes king faisal specialist hospital & research centre as one of the leading healthcare institutions in saudi arabia. its mission is to provide medical services of a highly specialised nature and promote medical research and education programmes.
Opines that lack of knowledge of career development and advancement opportunities for employees in manual jobs is one of the major barriers to careers development for some employees.
Opines that career management is an important part of the various functions of hr department in an organisation. in a developing country context, hr systems should be integrated with each other.
Describes leung, a. s. (2004), corporate restructuring and career advancement in hong kong. park, y.
The Stages of Career Development
The Cambridge Online dictionary defines career development as the process of learning and improving your skills so that you can perform your job better and progress to better jobs (Cambridge, 2011). However, my articles on career development have a slightly different view. My article states that career development happens in stages, and it has influencing factors (Gohdes, 1997-2000). Therefore, I will discuss these elements along with its main points.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the cambridge online dictionary defines career development as the process of learning and improving your skills so that you can perform better and progress to better jobs.
Discusses theories of career development according to ginzberg, ginsburg, axelrad, and herma, who believed that four factors influenced vocational choices.
Explains the four factors that ggah mentions are reality, influence in the educational process, emotional factor, and individual values.
Explains that the tentative stage, from preteen to high school, further divides one's interest according to their capacity and values. the realistic stage spans from mid-adolescence through young adulthood, where exploration and focus takes place.
Explains that some of the factors and stages mentioned above played a part in their career choices. they will use their autobiography to explain this.
Opines that their father encouraged learning and encouraged family devotions, bible quizzes and spelling activities. their family and church environment provided strength when other reality environments outside of the home were not comfortable.
Narrates how they were astute enough to teach a sunday school class, but while they read the lessons to the children, they imagined themselves as teachers.
Explains that they are attending college with hopes of becoming a teacher at high school or college. they believe that an attentive teacher can prevent bored students from becoming dropouts.
Explains that ggah theory includes a realistic stage, so they decided to go the educational route only, but take business instead for backup plan.
Opines that they will be a college graduate who is teaching at some high school or college. they hope that their future contains gifted teachers who are willing to share their knowledge while mentoring and sharpening our class.
Explains that they have looked at career development according to the theory of ginzberg, ginsburg, axelrad, and herma. they also discuss their past, present and future career plans and how ggah's theories played a part in their decisions.
Career development Theories
A theory is a way organizing and systematizing what is known about a phenomenon. It is, in fact, “a rationalized set of assumptions or hypotheses that provides a person with tools that can be utilized to explain the past and predict the future” (Johnson, 2000). Therefore, theories provide direction and when tested and supported, can assist in expanding our knowledge.
In this essay, the author
Explains that structural theories try to describe characteristics of both the person and the work place. a systematic examination of these characteristics is undertaken to help individuals match their characteristics to the most suitable environment.
Explains the trait-and-factor theory, which focuses on individual traits but does not account for changes in values, interest, skills, achievement, and personality over a lifetime.
Explains holland's theory that the choice of a career is an extension of one’s personality into the world of work.
Explains that consistency is the degree of relatedness personality type and environmental models. some pairs or types have more common than others.
Explains that differentiation is the degree to which a person is well defined. persons and environments differ in degree of differentiation and saturation.
Explains that identity refers to the clarity and stability of goals, interests, talents, etc. in the case of persons.
Defines congruence as correspondence between personality type and environment. different types of personalities require different environments to flourish.
Explains that people orientated towards the realistic type prefer acting out problems or being physically involved in performing work tasks. they avoid tasks involving interpersonal and verbal skills and see concrete rather abstract problem situations.
Explains that investigative type prefers to avoid close interpersonal contact, though the quality of their avoidance seems different from that of realistic colleagues.
Explains that artistic types dislike structure and prefer tasks emphasizing physical skills and interpersonal interactions. they tend to be introspective and social in manner of the investigative but differ in that their interests are more stereotypically feminine than masculine.
Explains that social types gravitate towards activities that involve promoting the health, education, and well-being of others. they are socially skilled and averse to isolative activities.
Explains that enterprising types use their skills for self-gain rather than to support others, as do social types. they aspire to attain power and status while conventional types honor others for it.
Explains that conventional types prefer structure and order and seek interpersonal and work situations where structure abounds.
Explains that a theory organizes and systematizes what is known about the phenomenon. it provides direction and when tested and supported, can assist in expanding our knowledge.
Explains that calculus refers to the relationship between types and environments in hexagon model. holland identified six categories in which personality tpyes and job environments can be classified.
Career Development is a “continuous lifelong process of developmental experiences that focuses on seeking, obtaining and processing information about self, occupational and educational alternatives, life styles and role options” (Hansen, 1976). The above statement I have follow through my career .
In this essay, the author
Explains that the world "career" refers to what one does to make a living, an occupation, trade, profession, vocation. it also considers one's education and unpaid work experiences.
Explains that career development is a continuous lifelong process of developmental experiences that focuses on seeking, obtaining and processing information about self, occupational and educational alternatives, life styles and role options.
Explains that there are several careers theories, such as parson's theory, which ignores transferable skills, and has been criticized for being limited in terms of cultural validity.
Explains holland theory, which focuses on five different life stages, such as growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline.
Explains that women's dreams in levinson 1798 sense are more complex and compounded than traditionally work focused dreams of men.
Narrates how they became a certified accountant, certified banker, and certified auditor after being hired by popular bank.
Explains how they were promoted to 37-years-old due to their new qualifications, hard work, dedication, establishment, and absorbing laiki assets.
Analyzes how super himself recognized his theory lacked comprehension and integration. it had been criticized for being rigid in which not all people’s lives fit into these life stages.
Explains that the above theories may not apply to the 21st century. globalization, temporary and contract work, outsourcing of jobs and gender, ethnic, and age diversity in the workplace have affected the validity of career theories.
Explains that studying msc business management will help them become a better team leader and improve their managerial skills.
In this era of organizational restructuring and technological change, individuals can no longer plan on spending their entire working lives with one organization. Life no longer follows a linear path: schooling, work, retirement. Career paths, too, are no longer a linear rise up the ladder to the top. Some analysts proclaim the "new rules of work" : everyone is self-employed and the concept of "job " is disappearing (Hall and Mirvis 1995). Such fundamental changes mean that people need more help than ever with career issues. However, a recent survey of 1,046 adults (Hoyt and Lester 1995) showed that 40% would turn to family or friends first; 37% to counselors. Only 30% had discussed career choices with school or college counselors; only 36% had made a conscious career choice or plan; and, for 4...
In this essay, the author
Explains that the changing workplace has made ambiguity the only certainty in work life. many adults had little or no career education, guidance, or counseling when they were "in school," and often seek such help now.
Explains that the job club is an effective network of information exchange and social support for others adrift in the same boat of midlife transition.
Explains that "one-stop career centers" are being developed in 16 states with federal funding to bring together comprehensive, integrated career services, such as information on job training, education programs, and financial assistance, in accessible locations like libraries and malls.
Argues that the "new career contract" signals a shift from organizational to individual careers and should help adults develop internal criteria for success that enable them to achieve self-fulfillment in any domain.
Explains that career counseling is a personal matter.
Explains that in the era of organizational restructuring and technological change, individuals can no longer plan on spending their entire working lives with one organization.
Opines that adult career counseling is an exploration of personal identity and meaning in this culture. women's career development remains entangled with family issues, role conflict, sex discrimination, and harassment.
Recommends locating the individual client on a continuum of ethnocultural identity, identifying the relative importance of personal or cultural characteristics to an individual.
Explains that counselors must ensure that career assessment instruments used with adult clients are appropriate.
Explains fouad, spreda, and mirvis, p. h. "the new career contract."
Career management plays important role in career development. Career management is done with involved taking some necessary steps to reach the career plan and commonly more focusing on the ability of the organization able to do for their employee to increase their career development (Werner & DeSimone, 2009). Career plan is usually able to be performed, at least in some apart, through the training program which implemented by the organization. Career management process contained four steps which are self-assessment, reality check, goal setting and action planning (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
In this essay, the author
Explains that career management involves taking necessary steps to reach the career plan and focusing on the ability of the organization to do for their employee to increase their career development. the four steps are self-assessment, reality check, goal setting and action planning.
Explains self-assessment is a process to identify skills, abilities, knowledge, and behavioural tendencies of the employees.
Explains that reality check refers to the information about the employees' skills, abilities, knowledge and experiences that employees received after evaluation process by the company.
Explains that goal setting is a process that the employees develop the short and long-term career objectives that are related to improvement and development.
Explains that the final step of career management process is action planning, which takes place after a development plan is prepared and completed.
Cites allen, r. (2005), waltham, antoniu, e. (2010), career planning process and its role in human resource development.
Drawing the concept from the above definition of career development provided by national career development association (2003) is reveal that there are various factors which influence the appropriate career development, included as ‘psychological, sociological, educational, and economic
In this essay, the author
Defines career development as the combination of psychological, sociological, educational, and economic factors which influence the significant of work in the total life span of an individual.
Describes the factors that influence the appropriate career development, including psychological, sociological, educational, and economic factors.
Explains that psychological factors influence career development, including interest, prestige, personality, values, norms, self-esteem, and all other factors.
Explains okorodudu's argument that the family is the first relationship with his child in this world.
Explains that sociological factors affect career development of higher secondary adolescent students, including peer group, role models, mentors, social networks, tribal sentiments and government policies.
Explains that in career development, economic factors such as poverty, needs, wants, demands and several other factors need to be considered. the career choice taken by most of higher secondary school students depends on their socio-economic conditions.
Explains that educational factors that affect career development include skills, experiences, knowledge, information, and other factors. super theory, social cognitive theory and krumboltz’s social theory reveal that the skills and experiences are the main factors in developing the career.
Opines that teachers and counsellors should be continuing career development at the higher secondary school level. these activities include making a classroom, teaching/reinforcing productive work habit, helping students understand career applications of subject matter using resources persons.
Wyld, D. "The 13th Generation and Its Revolutionary Definition of `Career.'" Journal of Career Planning and Employment55, no. 1 (November 1994): 26-28, 58-60. (ERIC No. EJ 497 317)
In this essay, the author
Explains that generation x refers to the population cohort following the baby boomers.
Explains that generation x workers jump from job to job, are unwilling to conform to organizational demands that do not suit them, and leave jobs that bore them and are not "fun."
Explains that generation x is the only generation since the civil war to come of age unlikely to match their parents' economic fortunes. they believe that security comes from the transferability of one's skills to other jobs.
Analyzes filipczak, b., "it's just a job: generation x at work." training 31, no. 4 (april 1994): 21-27
Analyzes lancaster, h., "managing your career: you may call them slackers; they say they're just realistic."
Analyzes how generation x-ers are self-oriented, selfless, and outcome-based. they are used to spending money and cultivated expensive tastes. today's economy offers fewer good-paying, entry-level jobs.
Explains that generation x has higher levels of education than those in previous generations. they are more emotionally suited for today's career demands.
Explains that generation x holds the trump cards: education and training as incentives for workers to stay in their jobs.
Explains that bradford, l. j., and raines, c. twenty something: managing and motivating today's new workforce.
Explains wilkinson, m. h., and wyld, d. "the 13th generation and its revolutionary definition of career.'
In this assignment we as a team will discuss how to effectively plan for success in careers. Including which strategies can be employed for professional growth, such as continued learning by staying up to date on current information in your field or earning a higher degree, taking advantage of training and development opportunities through your employer. Gain certifications and endorsements; join professional organizations, clubs and or societies, volunteer for opportunities that will help you build your skills and knowledge, watch for ways to lead, seek out promotions, also knowing when to leave and move on to other opportunities. We will also cover how professionalism and etiquette can affect career success, starting with a description of
In this essay, the author
Explains how to effectively plan for success in careers and how professionalism and etiquette can affect career success, starting with a description of professionalism, honesty, ethical, accountable, confidence, respectful, polite, reliable, poised, well-organized, prompt communication.
Describes some strategies that can be employed for professional development that supports learning capabilities.
Defines skills as the learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both.
Opines that developing people management skills should be an absolute priority if you're looking to climb the career ladder. practical training and coaching are particularly effective.
Explains how professionalism and etiquette can affect the success of a career.
Explains that planning for success is a crucial process with multiple strategies to consider. professional growth, general professionalism, and etiquette play important roles in career success.
Many theories of career development are derived from theories of personality (Sharf 1997). They attempt to illuminate the interrelationship of individual personality and behavior with work and careers. However, some prevailing career development theories were based solely on research on white males from middle- and upper-middle-class backgrounds, so their applicability to women, people of color, and other socioeconomic groups has been called into question. In addition, the focus on individual psychological or personality characteristics does not take into account the wider environmental context in which people make career decisions, thus failing to recognize the constraints faced by some groups. This Digest investigates broader perspectives on career development that are being built on emerging research focused on gender, race, ethnicity, and social class. The implications of this information for career and vocational educators and counselors are discussed.
In this essay, the author
Explains that many theories of career development are derived from personality theories. however, their applicability to women, people of color, and other socioeconomic groups has been called into question.
Explains that trait and factor theories are based on the assumption that there are unique traits that can be reliably measured and that it is possible to match individual traits to occupational requirements.
Explains that life-span theories take a long-term, developmental perspective. super's theory of vocational choice suggests that individuals pass through stages of vocational development involving developmental tasks at each stage.
Explains social cognitive career theory, which identifies the interaction of personal attributes, external environmental factors, and behavior in career decision making.
Argues that career development theories are based on white, middle-class values, make assumptions, fail to include crucial structural and cultural variables, and are not applicable to certain groups.
Explains that career maturity is influenced by age, ace, ethnicity, locus of control, socioeconomic status, work salience, and gender.
Explains that some studies fail to show that socioeconomic status has a significant influence on career maturity, but others suggest that concepts like career exploration and planning may not apply to poor individuals who may leave school to take jobs for economic survival
Explains that career maturity research shows conflicting results for gender, some studies finding higher levels in males, others in females.
Explains that racial/ethnic identity is emerging as an important dimension in explaining career development. cross presented the nigrescence model, a continuum of african american identity.
Explains leong and chou's findings that a continuum of ethnic identity influences the vocational behavior and career choices of asian americans, while native americans' world view affects their view of work.
Analyzes how different cultures have different conceptions of the family, gender roles, and family-work relationships. "career" may have a collective, not an individual meaning.
Opines that race/ethnicity shouldn't be used as a primary signifier of career behavior, and it's important to look at the conditions under which membership is salient.
Explains that career choice and development are influenced by multiple factors, including personality, self-concept, racial/cultural identity, socialization, financial resources, experiences of sexism, racism, and class.
Cites carter, r.t., and cook, d.a. in adult career development, 2d ed.
States fitzgerald, l. f., and betz, n.e. in convergence in career development theories.
Cites leong, f. t. l., osborne, and miner, c.u.
Explains naidoo, bowman, s.l., and gerstein, l.h. demographics, causality, work salience and the career maturity of african-american students.
Explains perron's longitudinal study of vocational maturity and ethnic identity development in rural economically disadvantaged youth.
The career doldrums may also be associated with certain career stages. Careers are like lives in that they go through stages that frequently include transitions into new phases. One framework (Nicholson cited in Kidd 1998) for analyzing work transitions includes the following stages:
In this essay, the author
Explains the encounter stage that covers the early days of a career experience.
Explains the adjustment stage that involves the period in which individuals learn to do their job.
Explains the stabilization stage in which job performance is the main focus.
Explains that individual careers are multifaceted and no single solution can be applied to those periods of dissatisfaction and boredom.
Explains that moving up might mean a change to another company or changing the work emphasis.
Opines that downshifting may be a solution for someone who is ready to give greater priority to.
Explains that making adaptations in a current career situation is also an option.
Explains that many people cope with the career doldrums by finding fulfillment in interests outside of their jobs. the accountant who was suffering a career slump found that she had unused mechanical skills.
Explains planned happenstance, a theory that helps individuals develop skills to recognize, create, and use chance in career opportunities.
Opines that "one size fits all" is not the solution to addressing the career doldrums. hudson poses questions for surviving a midlife career plateau transition that are applicable to other situations when career satisfaction is low.
Asks what needs to be done to sustain balance in life and pacing in schedule?
Opines that responding to these questions may provide insights into the type of strategies that will be most helpful in curbing the career doldrums.
Explains that the concept of career doldrums isn't new, but the more open acknowledgment of the phenomenon.
Explains that the symptoms associated with career doldrums are most closely aligned with the stabilization stage.
Explains that career counseling can help individuals who are stuck on a career doldrums.
Explains that making a career move can be as simple as making changes within the same organization or as radical as shifting into another career field.
Explains that a complete change of careers may be the only option because it may mean retraining as well as "starting over."
Explains how career direction can be repackaged within the flow of new jobs and openings.
Cites clarke, caroline v., grannon, and hornaday, ann. "career plateau transitions in midlife and how to manage them."
Explains mitchell, kathleen e., levin, al s. and krumboltz, john d. "planned happenstance: constructing unexpected career opportunities."