Many theories of career development are derived from theories of personality (Sharf 1997). They attempt to illuminate the interrelationship of individual personality and behavior with work and careers. However, some prevailing career development theories were based solely on research on white males from middle- and upper-middle-class backgrounds, so their applicability to women, people of color, and other socioeconomic groups has been called into question. In addition, the focus on individual psychological or personality characteristics does not take into account the wider environmental context in which people make career decisions, thus failing to recognize the constraints faced by some groups. This Digest investigates broader perspectives on career development that are being built on emerging research focused on gender, race, ethnicity, and social class. The implications of this information for career and vocational educators and counselors are discussed.
Rudd, R. (2007). Defining critical thinking. Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, 82(7) 46-49. Retrieved December 9, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.
Rudd, R. (2007). Defining critical thinking. Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, pp. 46-49. Retrieved February 5, 2009, from EBSCOhost database.
Critical thinking and critical thinker are the two most common words I heard from my college professors when I entered college. Many of us, including myself, have never really thought or consider what critical thinking is. It was like stepping into an unknown territory and I was terrified. Addressing that issue, author Bell Hooks wrote an article stating that “thinking is an action”. Hooks gave many examples of how students are resisting critical thinking. As a college student myself, I support Hooks’ view on the issue. Students are resisting critical thinking because they are unprepared and are afraid of making mistakes.
The aim of this book is to demonstrate the importance of critical thinking and demonstrate how critical these skills are for students to master. Just like how we learned other skills and mastered them, we also need to learn to think critically. For example, we can master let’s say a problem until we memorize a problem, however if we master critical thinking then we have tools to analyze and provide solutions to other problems. As the authors Elder and Paul (2007) states that not many students have been thought to analyze (p.41).
Critical thinking is recognized by accrediting bodies as an outcome for graduates of bachelor and master’s level programs, but no consensus exits on its definition and measurements (Ali, Bantz, & Siktberg, 2005, p. 90). Some critical thinking “descriptors are: confidence, contextual perspective, flexibility, inquisitiveness, intellectual integrity, intuition, open-mindedness, perseverance, and reflection. In addition, individuals who think critically have the ability to use the cognitive skills of analyzing, applying standards, discriminating, seeking information, reasoning logically, and transforming knowledge (Scheffer & Rubenfeld, 2000) (Ali, Bantz, & Siktberg, 2005, p. 90).
Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2006). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
In an analysis by Jessica Miller at Kentucky Emergency Management she states that “The social cognitive career theory gives an understanding to career interest and career choice by including background characteristics, socio-cognitive mechanisms and contextual influences. The key concept to the social cognitive career theory is self-efficacy, which is the perceived level of confidence in one’s ability to perform various activities related to career planning and
Critical thinking has been defined in great depth over thousands of years yet comparison of many of these definitions show the emphasis alters between what characteristic is deemed most important for each individual. However the definition alters, the same three important principles are always included: scepticism, open-mindedness and objectivity. It is important for each individual to conclude his or her own definition of critical thinking to enable a specific authenticity that equates to an individuals academic work. This essay will show that while the true meaning of critical thinking doesn’t change, adapting a personal definition is vital for success in higher education and life skills.
Application of career theories to my own life allows for analyzing past and future career decisions. Holland’s Theory of Careers states that one’s vocation is an expression of self, personality, and way of life. There is an indisputable and fundamental difference in the quality of life one experiences if they choose a career one truly enjoys, versus choosing a career one detests. A true testament to the validity of Holland’s theory, my job/career choices reflect my interests, as well as the evolution of my personality (internal self). My first job as a fine jewelry specialist and second job as a make-up artist echo my love of the fashion world. As I matured and became less fascinated by presumed “glamour” careers, I became captivated by physical fitness, nutrition, and medicine; I received my national fitness trainer certificate so that I may become a personal trainer. Nevertheless, my career decisions do not fit uniformly into merely one career theory.
Critical thinking is not a new concept just emerging from the think-tanks and universities that bring us innovative educational concepts. Critical thinking has existed since the days of Plato, Socrates, and other great ancient philosophers. Ancient Greeks believed that critical thinking “not only involved an examination of eloquent words and actions of other people,” as Plato had believed, “but also an examination of one’s own thoughts and actions” (Sriraman & Adrian, 2004, p. 97). Another outspoken advocate of critical thinking was Francis Bacon, a controversial scientist from the early seventeenth century. A non-conformist, Bacon proffered that critical thinking was the “desire to seek, patience to doubt, fondness to meditate, slowness to assert, readiness to consider, carefulness to dispose and set in order; and hatred for every kind of imposture” (Lloyd & Bahr, 2010, p. 1). The concept of critical thinking has played a prominent role in intellectual circles throughout history. An exact definition to be agreed upon by educators and intellectuals alike, has eluded these great thinkers since historical records revealed the idea of critical thinking.
Lipman, M. (1995). Critical thinking - what can it be? In A. Ornstein & L. Behar (Eds.) Contemporary issues in curriculum,pp. 145-152.
Ennis (1996)(R.H. Ennis, 1996) defended a conception of critical thinking based primarily on particular skills, such as generalizing, inferring, reasoning, evaluating, reasoning, and the like. For him, critical thinking is the correct assessing of statements. Like Ennis, Paul (1984)(Richard Paul, 1984) emphasizes the skills and processes associated with critical thinking. He distinguishes critical thinking in the weak sense from critical thinking in the strong sense. Unlike Ennis and Paul, McPeck (1981)(McPeck, 1981) argued that critical thinking is specific to a particular discipline, and that it depends on the thorough knowledge and understanding of the content and epistemology of the discipline. For him, critical thinking cannot be taught
Critical thinking is a significant and essential topic in recent education. The strategy of critical thinking skills helps identify areas in one's courses as the suitable place to highlight, expand and use some problems in exams that test students' critical thinking skills.
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2006). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and