Factors That Influence Development From The Preconception Stage

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There are many factors that can influence development from the preconception stage all the way through the first year of life. Some of the big categories are environmental, biological, socioeconomic status, nutrition, and cultural practices. Those five can be broken down to more specific teratogens and in this paper I will explore a few of those refined influences. The first one I want to touch on is nutrition as this is something that is in every single stage of development. Poor nutritional habits can result in both malnutrition and obesity. Either of these conditions can cause difficulties with conception as well as pregnancy and overall health. “Maternal overweight and obesity is a growing problem across the world, but women in lower socioeconomic strata continue to be at risk of undernourishment. Both pre-pregnancy overweight and underweight are risk factors for poor maternal and child health outcomes.” (Dean et al., 2014) This journal article further discusses lack of folic acid, iron and multivitamins. Lack of these nutrients are linked to things such as neural tube defects, spina bifida, poor fetal growth and low birth weight although the multivitamin contained folic acid so the results on multivitamin without folic acid needs more studies. The reasons nutrition is effected can be a variety of factors such as maternal maturity, socioeconomic status, education and availability of foods or supplementation. Another group of teratogens are environmental. These can be things that are voluntarily ingested like tobacco products, drugs (both prescription and illegal) as well as alcohol. They can also include things that are out of the control of the expectant mother such as bacteria due to sanitary conditions, lack of... ... middle of paper ... ...e illnesses in turn can lead to developmental delays, conception issues, maternal health complications, neonate cognitive and physical growth issues, infant mortality rates, and the list goes on. Socioeconomic status was mentioned several times as a factor in almost every category mentioned in this paper and in many of the studies cited. Lack of money or valued tradeable commodity makes getting proper medical treatment, nutrition, shelter, and education very difficult and sometimes almost impossible. Every one of those things has an effect on development in every stage. In conclusion it was easy for me to see the overlapping of tetragons among the major points of development in all stages from prenatal through the first year and beyond. This was reinforced by the text book and video clips provided as well as other articles I used to research my information.
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