Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of the action and its consequences. He coined the phrase operant conditioning. His experiments thought us that behaviors that are reinforced tend to be repeated and the ones not reinforced tend fade away. He was able to prove is his theory with famous “skinner box”. This experiment used animals to show if given reinforcements like food they behavior will repeat. When the animal was given a punishment or negative reinforcement the animal was less likely to do it again. This experiment still holds true today. While educators do not put their students in a box and give them electrical shocks when they are wrong, They do however promote good behaviors such as the token economy, where they provide gold stars on a big board which will condition the kids to want to get the stars for a special treat at the end of the specified time. Teachers now focus more on positive reinforcement rather than punishment. It tends to reap better benefits.
Skinner believed that all behavior is determined and operant behavior is the idea that operant behavior is the idea that we expect something because we preformed a certain behavior. Skinner also believed that operant conditioning’s purpose was to bring a change positive or or negative to any behavior.
F. Skinner, and Albert Bandura, focuses on changing the behavior of clients. This type of therapy “aims to decrease the frequency of maladaptive behaviors, and increase the frequency of adaptive or helpful behaviors” (Corsini & Wedding, 2014, p 194). Behavior therapy does this by using trait theories of personality and assuming that “each individual has unique, enduring patterns of behavior that can be observed across a wide range of situations and that these patterns can be understood in terms of specific personality characteristics – traits – that vary in intensity from low to high” (Corsini & Weddin, 2014, p 199). Behavior therapy also uses concepts such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning “is a form of learning in which one stimulus, a conditioned stimulus, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, an unconditioned stimulus…[an unconditioned stimulus] is typically a stimulus that naturally causes a characteristic response, known as an unconditioned response” and operant conditioning “is a form of learning in which the frequency, form, or strength of a behavior is influenced by its consequences” (Corsini & Wedding, 2014, p 200-201). Concepts like these, including reinforcement and punishment, can be wide spread and used in various types of situations which is why this therapy is a good one to use with other
Corporal punishment is a traditional practice of imposing pain, which is commonly used by parents towards children to remove an unpleasant behavior. It is also a physical force towards a child for the purpose of control, and as a disciplinary penalty inflicted on the body. The parents play a pivotal role in honing and disciplining their child with regards to his/her actions. Hitting them with physical objects and forcing them to do cleaning works are some of the ways of discipline, which were done at home. In the year 2000, research, the convention, and law reform – modified the punishment towards children. According to research, 20,000 people in the U.S – particularly those who are 20 years old and above, 1,258 experienced punishment by pushing, grabbing, slapping and hitting. 19,349 people had been reported that they didn’t experience such kind of punishment. Moreover, it is also executed on the children, in order for them to act independently and to visualize the negativities of being careless and dependent to others. Punishment is also
Parents' discipline of young children affects many aspects of their lives. There are many different methods of discipline being used my may different parents. Each parent has different methods to helping their children distinguish right from wrong. Some methods are more beneficial than others, but when comparing methods, it is clear to all that corporal punishment is the most frowned upon form of discipline. Some may wonder why it is looked down upon today if it was a major method of discipline in the 1900's that seemed to work just fine. A recent survey has shown 40% of parents with children under 3 yrs. old have yelled at their child and 40% of parents in this same age bracket have spanked their child (Regalado, M., Sareen, H., Inkelas, M., Wissow, L., & Halfon, N. 2004). Also, 11% of parents have spanked their infants under 1 year of age and 16% of parents have yelled at them. (Regalado, M., Sa...
The behavioral perspective is a theoretical perspective that says that abnormal behavior is caused by flawed learning experiences (Halgin and Whitbourne, 2013). B.F Skinner, the most common behaviorist, believed a person’s environment or anything external can influence a person mentally (AllPsych, 2011). The main point of the behavioral perspective is how the environment affects a person’s overall behavior (AllPsych, 2011). The three types of behavioral theories are classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and contiguity theory. Operant conditioning is when a person learns behaviors through reinforcement (Halgin and Whitbourne, 2013). Skinner studied operant conditioning by doing experiments using dogs that he placed in a “Skinner Box” (McLeod, 2011). Contiguity theory says that any stimulus and response that is connected will be associated with each other (Ramo and Howe-Tennant). Contiguity theory comes from the work of E. R. Guthrie (Ramo and Howe-Tennant). Classical conditioning is a learning connection between an original stimulus and a naturally evoking stimulus that causes an automatic reflexive reaction. Classical conditioning was the first type of learning to be discovered (Halgin and Whitbourne, 2013). Classical conditioning was also the first to be studied by behaviorist (Halgin and Whitbourne, 2013). Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov (AllPsych, 2011). During Pavlov’s experiments, he would put meat powder in dogs mouths that had tubes inserted in different organs to measure the dogs body responses (AllPsych, 2011). Pavlov found that the dogs began to salivate before the meat powder was presented to them (AllPsych, 2011). He also found that the dogs began to salivate as soon as the person feedi...
In Psychology there are many different learning styles. One of the more famous learning styles is operant conditioning. In operant conditioning there are two major concepts; reinforcement and punishment. By using these two concepts, behaviors can be encouraged or reduce a certain behavior. Next would be the different schedules of reinforcement that effect how often a behavior is likely to continue. Lastly the article goes on to state how behaviors can be shaped using these and other various methods.
In the column “Spare the Rod, Spoil the Parenting”, Leonard Pitts Jr. asserts that most of kids are spoiled. Pitts restates in his column that some form of corporal punishment, such as open-handed swats on the backside, arm or legs, does not leave a child scarred for life. This was found in a study done by Dr. Diana Baumrind, a psychologist from he university of California. Pitts finds it offensive when a child that has been spanked is compared with a child that has been scalded or punched. Arguing with a five year old does wonders for the self-esteem of the child but it kills the self-esteem of the adult and could cause insanity, declares Pitts. Children now a day have too much sense of entitlement and keeps one wondering w...
Behaviorism revolves around the measurable and observable characteristics of human behavior, and is based off of the principle that behavior is a result of stimulus-response associations. The purpose of this learning theory is using conditioning in order to acquire a desired behavior. Once understood, the use of behaviorism can be an effective tool in the classroom for educators to use.
The use of spanking is one of the most controversial parenting practices and also one of the oldest, spanning throughout many generations. Spanking is a discipline method in which a supervising adult deliberately inflicts pain upon a child in response to a child’s unacceptable behaviour. Although spanking exists in nearly every country and family, its expression is heterogeneous. First of all the act of administering a spanking varies between families and cultures. As Gershoff (2002) pointed out, some parents plan when a spanking would be the most effective discipline whereas some parents spank impulsively (Holden, 2002). Parents also differ in their moods when delivering this controversial punishment, some parents are livid and others try and be loving and reason with the child. Another source of variation is the fact that spanking is often paired with other parenting behaviours such as, scolding, yelling, or perhaps raging and subsequently reasoning. A third source of variation concerns parental characteristics. Darling and Steinberg (1993) distinguished between the content of parental acts and the style in which it was administered (Holden, 2002). With all this variation researchers cannot definitively isolate the singular effects of spanking.
Behavior modification is based on the principles of operant conditioning, which were developed by American behaviorist B.F. Skinner. In his research, he put a rat in a cage later known as the Skinner Box, in which the rat could receive a food pellet by pressing on a bar. The food reward acted as a reinforcement by strengthening the rat's bar-pressing behavior. Skinner studied how the rat's behavior changed in response to differing patterns of reinforcement. By studying the way the rats operated on their environment, Skinner formulated the concept of operant conditioning, through which behavior could be shaped by reinforcement or lack of it. Skinner considered his discovery applicable to a wide range of both human and animal behaviors(“Behavior,” 2001).
Violence within families often reflects behaviours learned by children from their parents. A theory is that violent behaviour is passed down from generation to generation through families (Cole & Flanagin, Pg. 2). The majority of Americans are subjected to corporal punishment at one point or another during their lifetime(Kandel, Pg. 4). Surveys suggested that almost all American parents used physical punishment at one point or another and the punishment was regared as an appropriate child rearing technique. Another survey also suggested that some psychologists belive physical punishment to be an effective and useful socialization tool(Kandel, Pg. 2). Aggression is commonly conceived as existing on a continuum, ranging from very severe parental aggression to much milder and normal parental aggression, such as use of corporal or physical punishment(Kandel, Pg. 1). A common concern is that parental use of physical punishment will lead to aggressive behaviour in children.
Applying behaviorist theories in the classroom is called direct instruction (Campana, 2011). As Campana’s (2011) video explains, these forms of direct instruction include breaking down tasks into smaller and easier steps, modeling by the instructor, repetition and review, and structured/systematic planning. There are many proven advantages to using behaviorist techniques in the classroom. As in Skinner’s theory of learning, the implementation of reinforcements can improve behavior, increase motivation, and raise self-esteem in students.