Introduction Punishment is a process through which “the consequence of a response decreases the likelihood that the response will recur” (Gray, 2002, pp.115). Further, punishment can be seen as an effort to decrease the response rate to stimuli by either removing a desired stimulus or presenting one which is undesired (Gray, 2002). Recent studies suggest that punishment can be an effective method of behaviour modification. However, as reported in Lerman and Vorndran (2002), there are a number of limitations to punishment as an intervention and subsequent negative side effects. For this reason, certain principles upon which the implementation of a successful punishment is dependent must be adhered to. In accordance to these findings, this essay will contend that whilst there are alternative means to operant conditioning, certain punishment techniques have been proven to be effectual and in some aspects advantageous. The effectiveness of punishment “Punishment is one of the most used, but least understood and badly administered, aspects of learning” (Luthans, 1977, pp.300). As mentioned earlier, punishment is anything which weakens behaviour and tends to decrease it in subsequent frequency. Positive punishment is the method of administering negative consequences upon the occurrence of an action whereas Negative punishment involves the termination of positive consequences. In order to work, either case must weaken and decrease the behaviour which preceded the application or withdrawal of the stimuli. Skinner (1953) stipulated that we must defy the urge to label a form of stimuli as “desired” or “undesired” as a whole but rather to identify them by their effect on the observed subject. Whether punishment is effective depends on the criteria applied or the objectives to be achieved. That is, before we can say it is useful we must ask whether we desire an immediate or a lasting effect, and at how high a cost. There is some evidence to suggest that when punishment is administered in the form of aversive stimulation, it acts to suppress behaviour temporarily. When it is withdrawn, the punished behaviour rapidly gains strength. If the punishment is more severe and given consistently, it may act to suppress behaviour for a longer period of time (Skinner, 1953). Historically, the efficacy of punishment has been appreciated only in the pa... ... middle of paper ... ... determine its utility (Lerman & Vorndran, 2002). Ultimately, “if punishment is necessary, it should always be used in combination with positive reinforcement” (Luthans, 1977, p.517). References: Blackham, G.J., & Silberman, A. (1971). Modification of Child Behaviour. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. Browning, R.M., & Stover, D.O. (1971). Behaviour Modification in Child Treatment. Chicago: Aldine–Atherton, Inc. Gray, P. (2002). Psychology (4th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers. Lerman, D. C., & Vorndran, C. M. (2002). On the status of knowledge for using punishment: Implications for treating behavior disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 431-464. Lieberman, D. A. (2000). Learning, Behavior and Cognition (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. [Chapter 7] Luthans, F. (1977). Organizational Behaviour. United States of America: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Sanson, A., Montgomery, B., Gault, U., Gridley, H., & Thomson, D. (1996). Punishment and behaviour change: An Australian Psychology Society position paper. Australian Psychologist, 31, 157-165. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behaviour. New York: Macmillan Co.
Most of the things we daily perform are due to habits. Experts in psychology have suggested several theories to explain the process in which humans and animals shape such habits. Among those theories are classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. As humans it is almost inevitable to fall into bad habits, either consciously or unconsciously. Fortunately science has demonstrated that we can change or modifying unwanted behaviors through conditioning, (Whitbourne, 2012). Operational conditioning underlines how a behavior is strengthened or weakened by the use of rewards or punishments; shaping, modeling, and extinction are some of the techniques utilized to achieve these behavioral alterations, (Cherry, n.d.). Key points to consider for effective behavior modification are: clear identification of behavior to change, the use self-control, and punishments or reinforcements, (Cherry, n.d.; Selig, 2012). This paper shows how operant conditioning has been effective modifying behaviors either by rewards, extinction, or shaping.
In the early 1960’s Stanley Milgram (1963) performed an experiment titled Behavioral Study of Obedience to measure compliance levels of test subjects prompted to administer punishment to learners. The experiment had surprising results.
F. Skinner, and Albert Bandura, focuses on changing the behavior of clients. This type of therapy “aims to decrease the frequency of maladaptive behaviors, and increase the frequency of adaptive or helpful behaviors” (Corsini & Wedding, 2014, p 194). Behavior therapy does this by using trait theories of personality and assuming that “each individual has unique, enduring patterns of behavior that can be observed across a wide range of situations and that these patterns can be understood in terms of specific personality characteristics – traits – that vary in intensity from low to high” (Corsini & Weddin, 2014, p 199). Behavior therapy also uses concepts such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning “is a form of learning in which one stimulus, a conditioned stimulus, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, an unconditioned stimulus…[an unconditioned stimulus] is typically a stimulus that naturally causes a characteristic response, known as an unconditioned response” and operant conditioning “is a form of learning in which the frequency, form, or strength of a behavior is influenced by its consequences” (Corsini & Wedding, 2014, p 200-201). Concepts like these, including reinforcement and punishment, can be wide spread and used in various types of situations which is why this therapy is a good one to use with other
In Psychology there are many different learning styles. One of the more famous learning styles is operant conditioning. In operant conditioning there are two major concepts; reinforcement and punishment. By using these two concepts, behaviors can be encouraged or reduce a certain behavior. Next would be the different schedules of reinforcement that effect how often a behavior is likely to continue. Lastly the article goes on to state how behaviors can be shaped using these and other various methods.
If a behavior is desirable, consequences called reinforcers are used to encourage the behavior in the future, via the process of reinforcement. Reinforcement can be positive (presenting reinforcing stimulus) or negative (removing a negative stimulus). However, if a behavior is undesired, a negative consequence can be used to discourage the behavior, through the process of either positive or negative punishment. In positive punishment, a negative consequence is presented after the undesired behavior occurs. When negative punishment it used the idea is the same “to discourage future display of undesired behavior,” but instead of presenting a negative stimulus, a desired stimulus is removed following the behavior.
Behavior modification is based on the principles of operant conditioning, which were developed by American behaviorist B.F. Skinner. In his research, he put a rat in a cage later known as the Skinner Box, in which the rat could receive a food pellet by pressing on a bar. The food reward acted as a reinforcement by strengthening the rat's bar-pressing behavior. Skinner studied how the rat's behavior changed in response to differing patterns of reinforcement. By studying the way the rats operated on their environment, Skinner formulated the concept of operant conditioning, through which behavior could be shaped by reinforcement or lack of it. Skinner considered his discovery applicable to a wide range of both human and animal behaviors(“Behavior,” 2001).
Punishment takes away something a person wants or gives it something it doesn’t want. A punishment that is very common among teachers and parents is called time out from reinforcement. Therefore when a child is engaging in undesirable behavior they are denied access to what they want for a period of time. Although skinner believed that positive reinforcement and punishment are different explaining that it weakens the effect. Similar to reinforcement, punishment can work either by directly applying an unpleasant stimulus like a shock after a response or by removing a potentially rewarding stimulus. There are many problems with using punishment. One problem is punished behavior does not go away it becomes suppressed and returns when punishment is no longer existing. It doesn’t have a good effect because it creates aggression and fear of being abused and unsafe. This is especially a problem in schools with corporal punishment. Therefore punishment only tells you what not to do which skinner had learned early
1984 best reflects the behavioral studies of B.F. Skinner for operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is “the behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organism’s tendency to repeat the behavior in the future.” Skinner created an operant chamber, better known as the Skinner Box, which observed how rats responded to this conditioning and how, in relation, it could be applied to humans and not just animals. Skinner discovered that in giving rewards to the rat for pushing a lever on the other side of the box, the rat was encouraged to do it more for the same response. However, when Skinner put an electric shock on the rat when it had pushed down on the lever, he saw that the rat was discouraged to do it again in order to avoid the punishment of being shocked. This concept is what Skinner called “reinforcement”. Reinforcement is considered “any event that strengthens or increases the frequency of a preceding response.” Nevertheless, there are two types of reinforcement: positive an...
Out of positive reinforcement and punishment only the reinforcement was successful for my behaviour modification. I believe this was the case for a number of reasons but dominantly because the positive punishment had a lack of severity. The reason I came to this conclusion was because I realized in the case of positive reinforcement if I committed the operant response at least once my entire day of hard work would be ruined. When I made the switch to positive punishment I realized in the eventuality I performed the operant response I could just do the 50 push ups and be done with it. Upon comparison of my success and failure I reflected and realized if the punishment was more severe than 50 push ups I would not do it for actual fear and reluctance of doing the positive punishment. For example if the punishment was a 1000 push ups each repeated operant response I would most likely not bite my nails. I did enjoy the modified behaviour as my nails seemed fuller and less scarred but it was not long of an experiment enough so refraining from biting my nails was still a conscious action and took a lot of effort.
The criminal justice system is the system of law enforcement that takes an extensive position in prosecuting, defending, sentencing, and punishing those who are suspected or convicted of criminal offenses. It is essential to know the many theories of punishment that the justice system has created in their minds that eventually became a part of society. This paper will analyze the theoretical explanations of punishment and their effect on society by generating an opinion of how each type of punishment deters crime the best and if punishment provides any benefit to the offenders and to society.
In operant conditioning, there is an association between an individual’s behavior and its consequence. A consequence can either be reinforcement or punishment (233). Positive and negative reinforcements will increase the behavior. When an individual is reinforced, they will continue to repeat the behavior to receive the reinforcement again. Punishment, on the other hand, will decrease the behavior. If an individual is punished after a particular behavior, they will behave that way less often to avoid the punishment.
...epeated pairing or exposure to consequence-based procedures such as extinction. That is, consistent exposure to extinction or other consequence-based interventions may establish high-p instructions as discriminative stimuli for compliance (Wilder, Allison, Nicholson, Abellon, & Saulnier, 2010). Lastly, while the studies presented established the effectiveness of positive reinforcement on noncompliance, it will be of interest to find out if there are conditions in which positive reinforcement contingencies are not as effective. For example, it may be less effective when given a more difficult or highly aversive tasks. In addition, most of the research conducted has used edible reinforcers, so future research should attempt to determine the effects of other positive reinforcers on escape-maintained problem behavior. Future research could examine these possibilities.
According to Parenting Without Punishment: A Humanist Perspective part one written by Leaon F Seltzer discusses the scientific evidence against disciplining a child physically is indisputable. In others words, corporal punishment in a child development can affect the child’s growth. Not only is beating a helpless, dependent child morally questionable, it is also repeatedly been shown to be counter-productive. However, corporal punishment leads the child to do the wrong things because its showing harmful to the child’s sense of self and can damage its inflicts on the child. In addition to that, resent surveys were given to many parents about corporal punishment and two thirds of the parents responded saying, they approve on those actions. Also,