# Frequency Distribution Is A Visual Display That Organizes And Presents The Frequency Counts For Easy Interpretation Of Information

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Frequency distribution is a visual display that organizes and presents the frequency counts for easy interpretation of information. A measure of central tendency is a value that describes a set of statistics through the identification of the central position within the given set of data. The valid measures of central tendency include mean, mode and median. Dispersion is defined as variability or spread in variables or probabilistic distributions. It includes standard deviation and variance. The univariate methods are useful since they include the calculation of margins of error in a measure between two groups. They examine cases of one variable at a time.
Manifest coding is explicit and present in both texts and images. It definitely describes what has been written. On the other hand, latent coding is implicit and is not presented in text or images. It describes what was intended to be written. For example, if someone dreams about falling, the act of falling is represented by the manifest content. The fall itself is the latent content which could represent so much more. Latent coding would be preferred in representing the meaning of the dream. It might have to do with the loss of control in one’s life or failing in life.
Qualitative field research employs data that are based on the meaning of the participants’ categories. It also has the opportunity for in-depth study of a limited number of cases. In addition, it provides information for individual cases. One of its weaknesses is that making quantitative predictions are quite difficult. Secondly, the knowledge that is produced may not generalize to other individuals or variables. An example of a research question for employing the qualitative research method rather than quanti...

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...random variation would be called a sampling error if the sample is not representative of the residents. Thirdly, its representativeness of a sample allows it to make generalizations from the results collected back to the population. Simple random sampling however, has only one major disadvantage. It requires a complete list of all the residents yet it is usually unavailable for the large populations.
Bias refers to the degree of how far the statistic on average can lie from the parameter being estimated. It is also referred to as an error that comes out when a quantity is being estimated. An example of potential bias for simple random sampling is when all the residents are surveyed yet not all of them become ‘representatives’ on their own. In systematic sampling, an example of potential bias is when other residents are more likely to be included that the others.

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