Sonya Kovalevsky was born on January 15, 1850 in Moscow, Russia. She grew up in a very intellectual family. Her father was a military officer and a landholder; her mother was the granddaughter of a famous Russian astronomer and an accomplished musician. She grew up living a lavish life, and was first educated by her uncle, who read her fairy tales, taught her chess, and talked about mathematics. She even bumped into the subject of trigonometry while studying elementary physics. She achieved all of this by the age of thirteen.
At age 15 she had studied the topics of mathematics, literature, medicine, and physics. She wanted to excel mainly in literature and mathematics and pursue college career. But ever since 1863, Russian universities had been closed to women. If you were an unmarried Russian woman at this time, you were not allowed to travel freely. Sonya wanted to study mathematics abroad, but her father would not let her. His extent was to allow her to study calculus under a private tutor at the naval school of St.
Petersburg. Because she could not pursue her dreams as planned, she organized for a “platonic” marriage, which was basically for intellectual convenience. When Sonya was 18, she married Vladimir Kovalevsky, and brought her sister to move with them, again, for intellectual purposes. To her disappointment, Sonya realized she couldn’t pursue every part of her educational career, so she stayed with her first love, mathematics. Her husband, Vladimir, went on to study paleontology and left her.
She had many struggles trying to receive higher education because of the restrictions women had when it came to furthering ones education. But after many attempts, she was able to study with the great German mathematician Karl Weierstrass. She worked with him for the next four years and then in 1874, received her doctorate. By this time, she had published numerous original papers in the field of higher mathematical analysis and applications to astronomy and physics. But despite all her attempts, and brilliance, she was still a woman in her time period, and therefore unable to find a job in academia. Weierstrass had tried helping her find a job because he was astonished with her abilities and intellectual capacity, but had no luck because after all, she was still a woman.
Because she could not find work in the field of mathematics, she tried going into a life as a poet, theatrical critic, novelist, wife and mother.
... an excellent teacher who inspired all of her students, even if they were undergraduates, with her huge love for mathematics. Aware of the difficulties of women being mathematicians, seven women under her direction received doctorates at Bryn Mawr. Anna took her students to mathematical meetings oftenly. She also urged the women to participate on an equal professional level with men. She had great enthusiasm to teach all she knew about mathematics. She loved learning all she could about mathematics. Anna was a big contributor to mathematics. Anna was gifted in this department. She spent most of her life trying to achieve her accomplishments. She truly is a hero to women. She achieved all of these accomplishments when women mathematicians were very uncommon. She deserved all the awards and achievements she won. Judy Green and Jeanne Laduke, science historians, stated,
Andrea Kennedy Yates was born on July 2, 1964 in Houston, Tex. She graduated from Milby High School in Houston in 1982. She was the class valedictorian, captain of the swim team and an officer in the National Honor Society. She completed a two-year pre-nursing program at the University of Houston and then graduated in 1986 from the University of Texas School of Nursing in Houston. She worked as a registered nurse at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1986 until 1994. Yates early life showed promise for future success.
By studying philosophy Edith came to Christianity. She was one of the first women to be admitted to university studies in Germany. She was an outstanding student. After leaving the University of Breslau, she went to the University of Góttingin to study with Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology. She became interested in his philosophy and when he moved to the University of Frieburg he invited Edith to join him there as his assistant. She then received her doctorate in leading philosophers.
...h the many relationships she formed with men. Perhaps we misunderstand her many attachments. She loved to teach, and she had much knowledge to give. We can see from her many letters to Baron von Grimm, that she took pride in the education of her young protégés. Perhaps what many historians interpret as promiscuous behavior, was nothing more than her filling the lonely hours by sharing her vast knowledge with the young men she deemed worthy of her attention. She had long and lasting relationships with Orlov and Potemkin, and it seems that she was capable of being faithful and devoted.
This author was born Katherine (Kate) O’Flaherty Chopin in February of 1850 to a father of Irish descent and a Creole (French settlers of the southern United States, esp. Louisiana) mother (Guilds 293). Chopin was a bicultural mixture of strength. Due to measures beyond her control, she grows up in a life surrounded by strong willed women. These ladies were passionate women Chopin loved and respected; her great-grandmother, grandmother, and mother. They each added their individual spice of life to a brew of pure womanhood. Thus, seasoning a woman that would become one of the most influential, controversial female authors in American history. Kate Chopin created genuine works exposing the innermost conflicts women of the late 1800’s were experiencing. The heroines of her fictional stories were strong, yet confused, women searching for a meaning behind the spirit that penetrated their very souls.
Maria, born on August 31, 1870, was born into a middle class family with two well-educated parents for this time period. Her father, Alessandro Montessori, was a civil servant and a previous soldier and her mother, Renilde Stoppani, was an avid reader and well-educated. She followed in their footsteps as she later became well educated as she took time for her studies and picked up on the topic of which was being taught rather quickly; and would do well on exams. She later applied to the University of Rome, and was not admitted due to her gender. She changed her major and instead went to the university to study physics, mathematics and natural sciences. After doing exceptionally well on her exams, making and 8 out of 10, she was admitted into the University of Rome with a 137 out of 150 for a score and began studying medicine. Her father didn’t approve of a women studying medicine, which would be something that particularly a man would do. Not having her father’s approval or exception of studying medicine, little communication went between Maria and her father. However her mother, unlike her father, was very proud and often helped with studies. After graduating college in 1886, she attended Regio Institut...
Though there were other women in the science world at the time, as stated before, it was mainly male-dominated. Though she got along well with her male counterparts in the Laboratoire Central des Services Chimiques de l'Etat in Paris, she sometimes felt that there was still an “elite boy’s club” culture established by the lack of female scientists. This feeling only got worse when, after being over-exposed to x-rays, she decided to move back to England to continue her work in crystallography. She was offered a position at the King’s College, where she was put down and subordinated by the men in the laboratory, especially Maurice Wilkins, who was in conflict with her over who was in charge. This was due to miscommunication and most likely of the fault of the J.T Randall, the director of the biophysics
...es confused when he realizes that he has feelings for Princess Marya, and rather than being conflicted on who to choose, he merely wonders how he will explain to Sonya the situation without overly hurting her. This is an example of a more powerful love, one that his ‘soul mate’ Marya inspires in him. Nikolai is almost easily able to cast off his lifelong ‘love’ for his cousin in favor of this strange and “frightening” woman, with whom his future is unimaginable simply because he does not know her character or quirks, but her soul. When the two meet for the first time in proper circumstances, each knows exactly what to say, and Nikolai felt that he didn’t need to say that which he had prepared, but what “instantly and always appropriately came to his mind.” It is with this comfort with Marya that Nikolai is able to successfully run his estate later on in the novel.
In the late 1800’s slavery was slowly being abolished. Unfortunately it was not until the second half of the century that serfdom found an end in Russia and many were given the rights they deserved. On the contrary the liberation was not so simple for women. They continued to fight for their rights to attain true freedom and faced severe consequences for their radical efforts. As shown through Elizaveta Kovalskaia’s memoir, she, like many women in Russia, was faced with many challenges and adversaries in her attempts for change and fairness for all women.
She gained admission to the discussions of the foremost mathematicians and scientists of Paris, which earned her a reputation as a physicist as well as an interpreter of the theories of Leibnitz and Newton. Emilie showed unusual intellectual abilities even as a child. By the age of ten, she had read Cicero and studied mathematics and metaphysics. At the age of twelve, she could speak English, Italian, Spanish and German and could translate Greek and Latin texts like Aristotle and Virgil. She seemed to need no sleep, read amazingly fast, and would appear with ink stains on her fingertips from her note taking and writing. Her father would confide in her uncle saying “I argued with her in vain; she would not understand that no great lord will marry a women who is seen reading every day. It was her lover and lifelong friend, the Duke de Richelieu, who encouraged her to continue and to formalize her studies by hiring mathematics and physics tutors from Sorbonne. Emilie made her reputation as a scientist with her three volume work on the German mathematician and philosopher Leibnitz, The Institutions of Physics, published in 1740.
Since girls were not permitted to attend any college preparatory schools, she decided to go to a general finishing school. There she studied and became certified to teach English and French. Soon after she altered her mind and decided that she wanted to pursue an education in mathematics. In 1904 Erlangen University accepted Emmy as one of the first female college students. In 1907 she received a Ph.D. in mathematics from this University. From 1908 to 1915 she worked at the Mathematical Institute of Erlangen without getting compensated or titled. The only reason she was permitted to work there was because she was helping her dad out by lecturing for his class when he was out sick. During these years she worked with Algebraist Ernst Otto Fisher and also started to work on theoretical algebra, which would make her a known mathematician in the future. She started working at the mathematical Institute in Göttingen and started to assist with Einstein’s general relativity theory. In 1918 she ended up proving two theorems which were a fundamental need f...