Schmitz C, Rezaie P. The neuropathology of autism: where do we stand? Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2008;34(1):4–11. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2990.2007.00872.x. PMID 17971078.
In Understanding Autism: From Basic Neuroscience to Treatment. Edited by Molden S, Rubenstein J. CRC Press; 2006:77-93.A comprehensive review that highlights the most modern genetic strategies being used to identify vulnerability gene loci and candidate genes in the autisms. 9. Spence SJ: The genetics of autism. Semin Pediatr Neur... ... middle of paper ... ..., Botolato NA, Walson P. Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network: Background and rationale for an initial controlled study of risperidone, Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2000; 9(1): 201-24.
Levy, S. E., Mandell, D. S., & Schultz, R. T. (2009). Autism. The Lancet, 374(9701), 1627 – 1638. Lam, K. S. L., & Aman, M. G. (2007). The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Several studies have been conducted including neuroanatomic imaging, microscopic neuroanatomic observations and positron emission tomography in order to locate this dysfunction. Although some of the studies have reported abnormalities in various areas of the brain among the autistic patients, no common site or abnormality has yet been found. The criteria for diagnosing autism are those listed in the revision of the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R) of the American Psychiatric Association. According to this, the person must have been symptomatic since childhood and manifest a specified number of deficits that are abnormal for their developmental level in three aspects of behavior. These include qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction, qualitative impairment of verbal and non-verbal communication and imaginative activity, and a markedly restricted repertoire of activities and interests.
Dr Leo Kanner based his theory on 11 children who showed signs of withdrawal from human contact, this started at age 1 between the years of 1938 to 1943. In the 1940’s, the research of autism was so rare and this was a new case, Dr. Leo Kanner based the disability to be schizophrenia which in the eyes of the parents they thought they were at fault. In the 60’s, that is when the knowledge of autism and the treatments came clear. (Edelson Para. 8) Having the basic history of autism will let people understand where and how Dr. Leo Kanner had come across the disability.
(2000). The amygdala theory of autism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24, 355-64 Bristol-Power, M. & Spinella,G (1999). Research on Screening and Diagnosis in Autism: A Work in Progress [Abstract]. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders 29, 435 Glasson, E., Bower, C., Petterson, B., Klerk, N., Chaney, G., Hallmayer, F. (2004).
Effects of familial risk factors and place of birth on the risk of autism: A nationwide register-based study Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 46, 963-971 (2005) 4. King, I.F. et al. Topoisomerases Facilitate Transcription of Long Genes Linked to Autism. Nature 501, 58-62 (2013) 5.
In the 1960s and 70s, researchers began making the distinction between schizophrenia and Autism (Oberman, 2005). Since that time, the distinction has been made between individuals with Asperger’s, Autism, and Pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PPD-NOS) (Santrock, 2013). Some symptoms include: avoiding eye contact, not answering to name at 12 months, fails to show interest by 14 months, does not play “pretend” games, repeats phrases, trouble understanding feelings, gets upset by change, obsessive interests, and many more. Almost half of children with ASD have average to above average intellectual ability (Santrock, 2013). Some researchers are dividing ASD symptoms into two groups: social-cognitive, and senso... ... middle of paper ... ...Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Hans Asperger, a pediatrician from Austria, began to study a group of children at his clinic in 1944. He noticed that the young boys he was studying were clumsy, lacked social skills, and did not understand nonverbal communication. Asperger’s syndrome (AS), named after Doctor Hans Asperger, is a developmental disorder. Research by Woodbury-Smith and Volkmar (2009), claim that AS was originally thought of as a less severe form of Autism, in which the individual has higher linguistic ability but still lacks social skills. Many researches now consider AS an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
Immunization fact and fiction. Retrieved from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/im/iyc-vve/fiction-eng.php Ratajczak, H. (2011). Theoretical aspects of autism: Causes - a review. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 8(1), 68-79. Rutter, M. (2005).