Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that effects the brains development. It is characterized by affecting communication, cognition and social interaction. The spectrum of the disorders ranges from a mild condition called Asperger’s syndrome to a more severe form, which severely impairer’s development. The Office of Communications and Public Liaison states that the disorder affects one and eighty-eight children, however ASD effects boys more frequently than girls (Office of Communications and Public Liaison, 2013). ASD emerges in all age, ethnic and socioeconomic groups. The significant varied character and severity of the disorder is why ASD is considered a spectrum that poses a broad range of symptoms. Children who suffer from ASD usually have the appearance of normal development and then become withdrawn and regress from social interaction (Melinda Smith, 2013). The impaired social interaction of the disorder affects communication both verbally and non- verbally (Melinda Smith, 2013). Their communication with others and the world around them is also affected, as well as their thinking and behavior (Melinda Smith, 2013). Completed Studies involving ABA therapy have shown improvements in communication, social relationship’s, and school for children who suffer from Autism Spectrum Disorder. Results also showed that ABA also increased participation in family and community activities. MY theory involves creating individual customized intervention plans that will addresses the specific need of the participant, while also teaching the parent. Logically parents are our first teachers, and with that being said if parents are trained the progress would be more significant than without their participation. There is no kn... ... middle of paper ... .... Don H. Hockenbury TulsaCommunity College. (2011). Discovering PSYCHOLOGY FIFTH EDITION. new york: Worth Publishers. Medicine, Louis P. Hagopian & Eric W. Boelter The Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of. (2012). Applied Behavior Analysis and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Retrieved from Kennedy Krieger Institute: http://www.kennedykrieger.org/patient-care/patient-care-programs/inpatient-programs/neurobehavioral-unit-nbu/applied-behavior-analysis Melinda Smith, M. J. (2013, November). Autism Symptoms & Early Signs. Retrieved from HELPGUIDE.ORG A TRUSTED NON-PROFIT RESOURSE: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/autism_signs_symptoms.htm Office of Communications and Public Liaison. (2013, November 6). NIH. Retrieved from National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm#243513082
The topic of today’s reading was the ABCs of Behavior. For one of the assigned readings, Starting with ABA, Dr. Lovaas studied a group of 59 children with autism and examined the best ways for them to learn. He discovered that 19 of the children who received 40 hours a week of ABA therapy had the best outcomes, and within that group, a 47% became indistinguishable from their typical peers by first grade. Therefore, if ABA teaching techniques were used intensively during the formative years, fewer children required services after the first grade, through adulthood. Also this reading mentioned another form of ABA, the Verbal Behavior (VB) approach, this builds on all the ABA research but also enhances a child’s ability to learn functional language. VB adds an Applied Behavior Analysis approach to teach all skills, it is a fairly new and popular approach that has actually emerged from the basic teachings of ABA. But, it was not until 1998 that parents of children with autism got interested in the VB approach, and the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS). The ABLLS is a great tool for a consultant trained in the VB approach, but for a parent without any background in ABA, it can be very overwhelming. Nonetheless, the popularity of this book among parents led to a significant shift to the discrete-trial teaching (DTT) or Lovaas approach towards VB. In DTT, the therapist presents a demand, gets a response, and then gives a consequence (a reward or punishment). The VB works on the same principles of demands, responses and consequences, but the approach is different. As appeared on the second reading, The ABCs of ABA, every behavior contains three parts: the antecedent (A), which is what happens just...
... can be difficult for a child with autism to initiate conversation on her own, by following your child’s lead and responding to what she does, you are encouraging further interaction. You can also help by encouraging friendships between your child with ASD and other children”
Papachristou, E., Schulz, K., Newcorn, J., Bédard, A. C. V., Halperin, J. M., & Frangou, S. (2016). Comparative Evaluation Of Child Behavior checklist-Derived Scales In Children Clinically Referred For Emotional and Behavioral Dysregulation. Frontiers in psychiatry, 7, 146.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disability that can make developing major social, communication, ...
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), falling under the umbrella term of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), is defined by the International Classification of Diseases, volume 10 (ICD-10) as a disorder first diagnosed in childhood by the clinical manifestation of marked impairment in communication and social interaction, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors (“Pervasive developmental disorders,” 2010). This definition aligns with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-V), currently used in the United States (American Psychological Association, 2013).
In the United States, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reports that between 1 in 80 and 1 in 240, for an average of 1 in 110 children have an autism spectrum disorder, “ASD” (Nirv, Shah 2011). According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, up to six out of every 1,000 children may be diagnosed with some form of autism. In addition, boys are four times more likely than girls to have autism. This means that as many as 1.5 million Americans today are believed to have some form of autism. Unfortunately, the numbers appear to be increasing rapidly. Autism is a disability that frequently appears during the first three years of life. It is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain and impacts the normal development of the brain in the areas of social interaction and communication skills (Bee & Boyd, 2009). It is the most prevalent developmental disorder to date. Autism is one of five disorders coming under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD), a category of neurological disorders characterized by "severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development," including social interaction and communications skills (Zager, 2006). The etiology of autism is a topic of controversial debate, while researchers strive to achieve a common objective. The goal is to identify the cause of autism to understand the complex interplay between environment and gene regulation (NCBI, 2009). Although individuals with autism have existed for many centuries it was not recognized and labeled until mid 20th century. Therefore, early detection, intervention and an individual educational plan are essentials for the progress of ASD.
Autism is a disability that interferes with the normal development of the human brain in the areas of reasoning, social interaction and communication skills, typically appearing during the child's first three years (“What is Autism?”, the Autism pages 2004, from the Autism society of America). It occurs in roughly 15 to 20 of every 10,000 births and is five times more common in males than in females (“Autism: What to look for”, pamphlet by the Autism Society of the Phils.). Although recent advances have been made with respect to possible roots, the exact cause of this condition remains unknown. Children and adults with autism typicall...
The autism epidemic hypothesis indicated that the increased rate of children diagnosed with ASD is actual (Bishop, 2008). Autism Spectrum Disorders affect one in 150 American children and it appears during the first three years of age (Lim, 2009). Nevertheless, not every child with autism performs likewise. ASD is a variety of complex neurological developments which ranges from deficits in learning, language development, and social interaction to high functioning individuals with autism that can develop a language of a “little-professor” and recite literature word by word (Dawson & Ozonoff 2002).
Autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is behavioral and social communication impairment. It is a broad-based neurodevelopment or brain-based disorder that is the result of genetic events that occur prior to birth with widespread effects on cognitive and socio-emotional development (Geschwind, 2009).
Despite having years of scientific research on Autism and its related condition Asperger’s Syndrome; forms of Autism Spectrum Disorders still remain somewhat of a mystery disorder. There are many treatments available for individuals suffering from these disorders however; a cure is yet to be found. Early differences in social behavior can be the basis for diagnosis of autism as early as 12 months of age (Berkell 10). Early intensive treatment can prove beneficial and produce a dramatic difference in the lives of children that are typically diagnosed after the age of two. If children are diagnosed early enough it will have a great effect on their lives, their families and society by expanding their involvement in the community, efforts in education and decreasing problematic behaviors.
Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is known as a complex developmental disability. It is a wide-spectrum disorder. This means no two people have exactly the same symptoms. It is “characterized, in varying degrees, by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors.” (Autism Speaks Inc., 2014)
...of ABA, which has “demonstrated efficacy in…reducing inappropriate behavior and in increasing communication, learning, and appropriate social behavior” (Satcher, 1999, as cited in Brams, 2008, p. 6). Because all skill domains have the ability to be effectively addressed through the use of one multi-method ABA model, the process of confronting the many debilitating issues of ASD is simplified. There is still room for advancements within ABA and the Autism community, but the continual expansion of programs and dedication to ABA research is leading to more promises for the struggling ASD community. For the future of ASD, the hope is not only to keep individuals in their homes and out of institutions, but more importantly to provide them with the possibility of independence and the ability to thrive far beyond all of Autism’s previous restrictions (Blane, 2011, p. 6).