Many individuals, especially psychologist, question how can they describe a person’s personality using theories in order for society to have an understanding of why people behave the way they do. There have been many debates in regards to this question. Some psychologists state that genetics is one of the main factors why people react a certain way, depending on the circumstance. However, other researchers indicate that the environment plays an enormous role on the individual. Although both of these predictions might be accurate, one will not fully understand unless there is more information linked to their arguments. According to trait theories in the book of Psychology, there are multiple theories that explain different types of possibilities to these behaviors, two of them are called Trait Theory and Social-Cognitive Theory.
The social cognitive theory stressed on the social source of behavior besides the cognitive procedure that prejudiced both the individuals functioning and actions. Bandura’s social cognitive hypothesis argued that the cognitive issues are core to a person’s function and one can acquire knowledge without direct added support. This is through observation of replica. This is what he called the observational learning.
Eleanor Roosevelt once said, “Great minds discuss ideas; average minds discuss events; small minds discuss people.” Personality is characterized by many dimensions of a person’s overall being. The belief that personality stems from one origin is small minded and on many levels, unsupported. If the scope of personality is expanded, it suggests that there is not a single explanation determining a person’s personality and how it is formed. Personality Theories have been generated for centuries by individuals who desire to identify what distinguishes a person’s personality and how it affects their behaviors. What is it that comprises all the unique characteristics about a person?
Social Cognitive theory is a learning hypothesis in light of individuals with new practices can be learned by watching others. They learn by watching others and copying a model. This hypothesis is established from behaviorism, in light of the fact that the hypothesis manages subjective and enthusiastic parts of somebody 's conduct from watching and watching for comprehension behavioral change.
In conclusion, personality is a term that refers to the many patterns of similarities and patterns of differences among individuals. There are various ways with psychologists have examined individual differences in personality including the use of genetics. Through this method, psychologists have mainly examined biological underpinnings that contribute to individual differences in personality. While these measures provide some insights regarding personality, individual differences in personality cannot be adequately explained with reference to genes because of the weaknesses of these theories and the effect of environmental factors.
Many theories have been thought of over the years to attempt to explain why people behave the way they do. Many questions were brought up when thinking about that and the social learning theory is a popular theory in explaining this. Nobody really thought of the social learning theory too much until Albert Bandura wrote his idea of it. He actually wrote a book called “Social Learning Theory.” In this book, he states that behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning(Saul McLeod).
Psychologists have strived to define and explain personality for years and in their endeavors, many of them have arrived at differing, sometimes conflicting conclusions. For example, radical behavioral theorists believe that personality is nothing more than reinforced responses to stimuli while humanistic psychologists theorize that the human personality is exemplified through our enduring need to achieve self-actualization. For some, personality is a dynamic process, unfolding over the course of a lifespan. For others, it is an entity that is unwavering beyond childhood development. These are only a few of the ways personality has been defined over the years. Still, there are further nuances in these already vastly different approaches, creating
Sigmund Freud provides a concept of how a person’s personality is structured and to have a healthy personality requires a balance in the interaction between the id, ego, and superego. Bandura’s theory of observational learning plays a vital role in the persons conditioning process. By understanding the basis of observational learning that includes modeling, disinhibition, and trolling, one can recognize the different types of reinforcements that contribute to how one learns and then behaves in situations throughout their life. The experience and knowledge of self-discovery comes gradually without an instantaneous impact. Although, moments of true realization can give one a release from past insecurities, doubt, and shame just to name a few. Such realizations can change how one views or feels about their past, which includes their choices, successes, failures, and the different relationships they have had from birth to the present. In conclusion, one should invest in getting to know their own personality to educate themselves and receive the benefits of a healthy state of mental
This course has taught me a lot about the different personality theories as well as the best known psychology theorists that have developed these theories. Personality consists of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that make an individual unique. Numerous theories have been emerged to implicit the different features of personality. The main purpose of some theories is to focus on explaining how personality developed.
Does personality determine behavior? Phelps (2015) dived into this discussion in his article by reviewing the perspectives of personality, how psychology relates to behavior and the idea of self, and further, how behaviorists define personality and all of its components. Phelps (2015) compares and contrasts the common beliefs of personality and the view of self as attributed to personality theorists with those characterized by behavioral theorists. A typical understanding of personality is one that defines it as an internal substance that drives behavior, and therefore, by seeking to understand a person's personality we can almost assume their actions (Phelps, 2015). Behavioral theorists, on the other hand, do not lean on vague internal conditions to explain behavior, but rather they evaluate a person's past and present settings to define behavior, according to Phelps (2015). The conclusion is that behaviorists' perspectives on these topics are far more parsimonious in nature and most popular views of personality speak to a more internal and far-reaching position rather than the behavior itself (Phelps, 2015). Likewise, Phelps (2015) addresses the issue of meeting specific criteria for discerning whether a theoretical viewpoint is valid in helping us understand people. He continued to remark that behaviorists' stances meet a large portion of the criteria as presented by Gordon Allport (Phelps, 2015). For example, they have less assumptions, they are consistent, and not to mention, they are testable and falsifiable, Phelps (2015) supports. In my opinion and critical review, this article is useful because it provides an unbiased assessment of a variety of personality theories and definitions of personality and the self. Likewise, it is simple and easy to understand, thus qualifying it as parsimonious. Overall, I think the article did its ultimate job of evaluating different perspectives and
Through Social Learning Theory, an individual can be studied based on the behavior acquired by a role model. Verbal conditioning procedures and observation influences the response to an individual’s personality. Environment factors contribute to the Social Learning Theory. Antisocial model is a major contribute to crime, which influences negative characteristics. The Social Leaning Theory has three core social concepts the must be followed: observational learning, intrinsic reinforcement and modeling process.
The Biological approach to personality places emphasis on the genetic influences related to the development of an individual’s personality. Some may believe that children and their parents can have very similar personalities, for example a young boy having his father’s anger (Stelmack, 1990). Though this approach has often been questioned by psychologists, it is not disregarded all together. Some believe that genetics do have a role in an individual’s personality development; however environments, as well as personal experiences all work in forming personality.
Personality can be defined as an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting. Many personality theorists have put forward claims as to where personality is derived from and how it develops throughout an individual’s life. The two main personality theories this essay will be focusing on is the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Bandura, 1986) and the Trait Theory – Five Factor Theory (FFT) (McCrae and Costa, 1995). The SCT allocates a central role to cognitive, observational learning and self-regulatory processes (Bandura, 1986). An individual’s personality develops through experiences with their sociocultural environment. Whereas the Trait Theory proposes that all individuals are predisposed with five traits (Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Neuroticism) which determines our personality. This theory also puts forward that personality is stable and cannot change as it’s biologically determined.