B.F. Skinner is a major contributor to the Behavioral Theory of personality, a theory that states that our learning is shaped by positive and negative reinforcement, punishment, modeling, and observation. An individual acts in a certain way, a.k.a. gives a response, and then something happens after the response. In order for an action to be repeated in the future, what happens after the response either encourages the response by offering a reward that brings pleasure or allows an escape from a negative situation. The former is known as positive reinforcement, the latter known as negative reinforcement (Sincero, 2012). A teenager who received money for getting an “A” is being positively reinforced, while an individual who skips a class presentation is being negatively reinforced by escaping from the intense fear and anxiety that would have occurred during the presentation. Anything that weakens a response is considered punishment. For example, a kid who writes on the wall in permanent magic market and then gets yelled out and put into time-out is being punished. During modeling and observation, an individual watches somebody perform a behavior and then repeats the behavior. Children learn in this way. For example, a 3-year old who has watched his mother answer the phone and then starts picks it up while it is ringing one day and says “hello” has learned by modeling and observation. In order for an individual to model somebody, they have to be paying attention, remember what they saw, and be motivated to repeat the behavior. Applying the tenets of this theory to personality, Skinner felt that our environment and society shapes who we are and the personality traits that we develop. Instead of changing our internal response... ... middle of paper ... ... the self-efficacy and self-esteem of certain individuals, leading to more satisfying and fulfilling life that is built on better personality traits, I feel that Social Learning Theory can be applied to many situations. Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory are two theories that have been used to describe the development of personality. While Behaviorism places a strong focus on how the environment shapes our personality, mainly through the process of negative and positive reinforcement, Social Cognitive Theory goes one step further by including how one’s thoughts and perceptions combine with behavior and environment to influence personality. Although there are some limitations in both theories, I feel that self-efficacy, self-esteem, and habits are valid parts of the two theories, playing a large role in how personality traits are established and expressed.
“If you look back to the original social learning theory, you find it is largely about people learning from each other, and it shows how technology is not part of the equation. Social learning theory has four elements,
Does personality determine behavior? Phelps (2015) dived into this discussion in his article by reviewing the perspectives of personality, how psychology relates to behavior and the idea of self, and further, how behaviorists define personality and all of its components. Phelps (2015) compares and contrasts the common beliefs of personality and the view of self as attributed to personality theorists with those characterized by behavioral theorists. A typical understanding of personality is one that defines it as an internal substance that drives behavior, and therefore, by seeking to understand a person's personality we can almost assume their actions (Phelps, 2015). Behavioral theorists, on the other hand, do not lean on vague internal conditions to explain behavior, but rather they evaluate a person's past and present settings to define behavior, according to Phelps (2015). The conclusion is that behaviorists' perspectives on these topics are far more parsimonious in nature and most popular views of personality speak to a more internal and far-reaching position rather than the behavior itself (Phelps, 2015). Likewise, Phelps (2015) addresses the issue of meeting specific criteria for discerning whether a theoretical viewpoint is valid in helping us understand people. He continued to remark that behaviorists' stances meet a large portion of the criteria as presented by Gordon Allport (Phelps, 2015). For example, they have less assumptions, they are consistent, and not to mention, they are testable and falsifiable, Phelps (2015) supports. In my opinion and critical review, this article is useful because it provides an unbiased assessment of a variety of personality theories and definitions of personality and the self. Likewise, it is simple and easy to understand, thus qualifying it as parsimonious. Overall, I think the article did its ultimate job of evaluating different perspectives and
Through Social Learning Theory, an individual can be studied based on the behavior acquired by a role model. Verbal conditioning procedures and observation influences the response to an individual’s personality. Environment factors contribute to the Social Learning Theory. Antisocial model is a major contribute to crime, which influences negative characteristics. The Social Leaning Theory has three core social concepts the must be followed: observational learning, intrinsic reinforcement and modeling process.
...and observing the consequences. The role of self-efficacy is also emphasized by Bandura; self-efficacy underlies people’s faith in their own abilities. Self-efficacy can be developed by paying close attention to past success and failures, positive reinforcement and encouragement from others also plays a role in developing self-efficacy. The social cognitive theory is unique among other learned personality theories in that the emphasis places on the reciprocity between individuals and the environments they find themselves in. Learning theorists have been accuses of oversimplifying personality to such an extent that is has become meaningless, this is because they ignore many of the internal processes that are inherently human. These criticisms are blunted somewhat by social cognitive approaches because it explicitly considers the role of the cognitive process.
Goddard, M. J. (2012). ON CERTAIN SIMILARITIES BETWEEN MAINSTREAM PSYCHOLOGY AND THE WRITINGS OF B. F. SKINNER. The Psychological Record, 62(3), 563-575. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1030424426?accountid=458
Personality is patterns of thinking, behavior and emotional responses that make up individuality over time. Psychologist attempt to understand how personality develops and its impact on how we behave. Several theories attempt to explain personality, using different approaches. The social-cognitive and humanistic approaches are two of many theories that attempt to explain personality. This essay will identify the main concepts of social-cognitive and humanistic approach, identify perspective differences and discuss approach limitations.
When Skinner turned 24, he attended graduate school at Harvard University. As a Psychology student, he teamed up with Physiology Professor, William Crozier. Together, they began to study the relationship between behavior and experimental conditions. During his time at Harvard, Skinner conducted many experiments using rats (B.F.Skinner Foundation, 2002). Skinner’s findings made him “the most influential psychologist of the 20th century” (Roblyer,2003, p.57).
Personality can be defined as an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting. Many personality theorists have put forward claims as to where personality is derived from and how it develops throughout an individual’s life. The two main personality theories this essay will be focusing on is the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Bandura, 1986) and the Trait Theory – Five Factor Theory (FFT) (McCrae and Costa, 1995). The SCT allocates a central role to cognitive, observational learning and self-regulatory processes (Bandura, 1986). An individual’s personality develops through experiences with their sociocultural environment. Whereas the Trait Theory proposes that all individuals are predisposed with five traits (Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Neuroticism) which determines our personality. This theory also puts forward that personality is stable and cannot change as it’s biologically determined.
Social cognitive theory is different from social learning theory because it takes into account cognitive processes including thinking, memory, language, and evaluating consequences. According to social cognitive theory, individuals play a part in their development (Malone, 2002). Cognitive patterns play a very large role in depression (Furman & Bender, 2003). For example, people don’t have a motivation to move forward in difficult times if they don’t believe they are able to do so. Self- efficacy is an important part of personal agency, and a main aspect in social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2001). A person’s perceived abilities and confidence play a part in what he or she does in his or her life. Cognition becomes a motivator or a hindrance, according to social cognitive theory. A person’s perceived self- efficacy helps determine what a person chooses to do, the amount of effort they put into it, and how long they can persist if there are barriers or failures that occur. How a person sees failure is also influential (Bandura, 20...
B.F. Skinner was born on March 20, 1904 in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, a small town where he spent his childhood. He was the first-born son of a lawyer father and homemaker mother who raised him and his younger brother. As a young boy, Skinner enjoyed building and used his imaginative mind to invent many different devices. He spent his college years at Hamilton College in New York to pursue a Bachelor’s degree in writing. Following his graduation in 1926, Skinner explored writings of Pavlov, Russell, and Watson, three influential men in the field of behavioral psychology. After two years as a failed writer, Skinner applied to Harvard University to earn his Ph.D. in psychology.