Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Introduction Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), once called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, is one of the most common mental disorders among children. (Elia, Ambrosini, Rapoport, 1999) It affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, with approximately 60% to 80% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood, causing a lifetime of frustrated dreams and emotional pain. There are two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an inattentive type and a combined type. The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This behaviour stops ADHD sufferers from focussing deliberately on organising and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy, learning new skills or information is proved to be impossible. An example of such behaviour is recognised by the report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behaviour. Such behaviour can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem. (National Institute of Mental Health 1999) There are also secondary symptoms which are associated with ADHD, such as learning disorders, anxiety, depression and other mood disorders, tic disorders, and conduct disorders. (Spencer, Biederman, and Wilens 1999 in Monastra V, Monastra D, George, 2002) Stimulant drugs are widely used to treat the symptoms of ADHD. These stimulants dramatically reduce the hyperactivity of sufferers and improve their ability to focus, learn and work. Such medication may also improve physical coordination, for instance handwriting and sports. Research completed by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that these medicines may also help children with an accompanying conduct disorder to control their impulsive, destructive behaviours. The three medications that have been proven by the NIMH to be most effective in both children and adults suffering from ADHD are: methylphenidate (Ritalin), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine or Dextrostat), and pemoline (Cylert). (NIMH 1999) Yet there is currently much research on the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as t... ... middle of paper ... .... A comparison of the newer treatment options for ADHD. Formulary, 38 (1), pp. 38 Elia, J., Ambrosini, P.J., Rapoport, J.L. (1999). Treatment of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 56 pp. 530-533 Michelson, M.D., Albert J. Allen, M.D., Ph.D., Joan Busner, Ph.D., Charles Casat, M.D., David Dunn, M.D., Christopher Kratochvil, M.D., Jeffrey Newcorn, M.D., F. Randy Sallee, M.D., R. Bart Sangal, M.D., Keith Saylor, Ph.D., Scott West, M.D., Douglas Kelsey, M.D., Ph.D., Joachim Wernicke, M.D., Ph.D., Nancy J. Trapp, B.A., and Donald Harder, M.S. (2002). Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. American Psychiatric Association Monastra, V., Monastra, D., George, S. (2002). Effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 27(4) pp. 231-249 National Institute of Mental Health (1999). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Retrieved April 2, 2003 from www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/adhd.cfm#adhd3
When dealing with adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD may become a challenge for many parents. Knowing the facts about this disorder and how to treat the problem is the key to a healthy lifestyle for adolescents as well as families. Many therapies and medications are available to families with children with ADHD but many questions that parents have with their children with ADHD is which therapy is best and what would work best with their children and their quality of life. The question of which therapy, alternative versus medication therapy would improve adolescent’s quality of life and behavior modification.
ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). (2004). In The concise Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science. Retrieved from http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?qurl=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com.library.gcu.edu%3A2048%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fwileypsych%2Fadhd_attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder%2F0
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most widely diagnosed “mental-illness” in children in the United States today, and approximately 99% of children diagnosed are prescribed daily doses of methylphenidate in order to control undesirable behaviors. (Stolzer)
Have you ever suffered or known anyone that has suffered from attention deficit disorder? A.D.D. is a biologically based condition causing a persistent pattern of difficulties, which includes three types of behavior. These three types are difficulty attending or focusing on a specific task, difficulty inhibiting behavior, and difficulty controlling impulses. In 1950 the prescription drug Ritalin was patented and manufactured by the CIBA-Geigy Corporation. This drug stimulates the central nervous system, with effects similar to but less potent than amphetamines and more potent than caffeine (Bailey 1). Several million children are being treated with Ritalin on the grounds that they have attention deficit disorder and are suffering from there inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity. In the past decade, there has been growing evidence that Ritalin has had negative effects on a child’s mind and behavior leading to such disorders like psychosis, mania, drug abuse, and addiction. It suppresses creative and spontaneous activity making them more docile and obedient because of the way that Ritalin produces malfunctions in their brain rather than improving its function (Breggin 124). Prescribing Ritalin to children with diagnosed attention deficit disorder brings more negative side effects than solutions and leads to addiction.
Political correctness and the constant fear of impending litigation from any number of sources has forced society to find other means through which they can control their children. Though other avenues for treatment exist, recent developments in educational and familial systems have produced a situation where children are over prescribed stimulant medications to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder for educational purposes. For that reason, we must consider the appropriate treatment for ADHD in education. Four main aspects to this issue need to be discussed in order to fully understand the situation: a description of ADHD, the symptoms of ADHD, the statistical information regarding the over prescription and a description/history of stimulant use, and some possible alternatives to drug therapy.
Many children are diagnosed with a “neurobehavioral disorder” known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) it affects approximately five to ten percent of children around the world (Kolar, Kelleer, Golfinopoulos, Cumyn, Syer, Hechtman). What some people do not know is that it continues throughout a person’s adulthood. ADHD affects approximately six percent of the adult population (Kolar, Kelleer, Golfinopoulos, Cumyn, Syer, Hechtman). Treatment for this disorder is of course medication. The question is, is this an effective way to treat both children and adults? I believe that ADHD medication is an effective treatment for ADHD in children and pre-teens, but is less effective in adults.
The truth is within the past two generations a phenomenon has taken place in connection to children across this country. Today one and a half million children take medication to focus attention and control hyperactive behavior (Freed 216). Most of these children have been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. There are three types of ADHD the first consists of inattention only or the inability to focus attention. The second consists of hyperactivity and impulsivity. The third form of ADHD is a combined type where the child or adult has difficulty dealing with attention and hyperactivity and impulsivity. Children with ADHD are typically prescribed a drug called Ritalin (or one similar to it), which is a methylphenidate (recently amphetamines have been used also) making it easier to control behavior.
The document states that an untreated case of ADHD can have serious effects on the lives of both children and their parents (Withrow, Hash, & Holten, 2011). Before treating children, physicians must look for a coexisting conditions which could affect the diagnosis and treatments of ADHD. Parents and children should aid their physicians by using the support of their community and the resources of their school (Withrow et al., 2011). Physicians should take several courses of action: educating the parents and patients, monitoring patients for the emergence and severity of side effects, and evaluating the treatment each year. Pharmacotherapy, or therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, is another accepted way for physicians to treat children with ADHD. The documents says that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves certain drugs for the treatment of ADHD (Withrow et al., 2011). The list of approved drugs include the psychostimulants D- and DL-methylphenidate, atomoxetine, amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and a noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor (Withrow et al., 2011). To see if a child’s behavior demonstrates the symptoms of ADHD, an analysis of that child’s behavior is needed. According to this document, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) emphasises classroom behavioral interventions and parental training in behavioral therapy (Withrow et al., 2011). The AAP considers both of these to be of
The purpose of this research was to describe and understand Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the most effective treatment options that are available today. ADHD is a mental health disorder that affects 3-9% of the population in ways that, if left untreated, can wreak havoc on the mind of the sufferer. It makes concentration difficult, large tasks seem insurmountable, and causes impulsive and hyperactive tendencies. Fortunately, research and experiments have led to new and effective treatments to help those who suffer from this disorder (Dupaul 8). This research examined journal articles and internet sources on the topic to help unlock the complexities of the disorder through scientific research. It also was a way to separate the myths of the disorder from the truths, while discovering the causes, diagnosis methods, and best treatment alternatives to battle this prevalent disorder.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, better known as ADHD, is a chronic condition affecting millions of children, and often persisting to adulthood. Individuals with this mental disorder face struggle with concentration, and controlling hyperactivity along with impulsive behaviour. It seems that more and more children are diagnosed with ADHD in ties with bad behaviour, and the inability to focus; however, ADHD is a real issue which can be too often looked past. Although treatment will not cure ADHD, treatment is a great option for many individuals, and studies show that medication such as Ritalin or Concerta, and behavioural interventions or therapy can help a great deal. ADHD can lessen with age and maturity, and treatment provides that extra push to deal with the symptoms. Many believe that medication and treatment is not the best approach for children with this illness; yet in most cases, medication and treatment is a beneficial tool which eases the individual of difficulty with focus or concentration, resulting in improvements with social behaviour, academics, and lifestyle.
When discussing the different aspects of New Criticism in Dylan Thomas’s poem “Do Not Go Gentle into The Good Night”, the impression that comes to mind is death. The use of imagery was a necessity for Dylan Thomas to express the different techniques of writing which involved a mixture of surrealistic and metaphysical tones. His ability to change a words meaning to incorporate symbolism is noticeable in circle of unity from life to death and renewed life.
“Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition affecting children and adults that is characterized by problems with attention, impulsivity, and overactivity” (CHADD). “It is a neurobiological disorder that affect 3-7 percent of school age children and may be seen as before the age of 7. The current diagnostic label is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, however, in the past several other names have been used, such as brain-damaged, minimal brain dysfunction, hyperkinetic impulsive disorder, and attention deficit disorder (CHADD). ADHD is a controversial disorder. Some understand it to be a true disability, while others believe “good teaching and discipline at home resolve the problems” (Kauffman 2005).