The past two decades have engendered a very serious and historic shift in the utilization of confinement within the United States. In 1980, there were less than five hundred thousand people confined in the nation’s prisons and jails. Today we have approximately two million and the numbers are still elevating. We are spending over thirty five billion annually on corrections while many other regime accommodations for education, health
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders diagnosed among children in the United States (Lynch, 2013). Its growing prevalence in the United States is becoming a major controversy in the field of Psychology. The public seems to have an opinion as well. Should we be treating children with …
In the United States of America’s criminal justice system, both violent and non-violent offenders are imprisoned. This imprisonment has led to overpopulation of our prisons, both federal and state-owned. Overpopulation and overcrowding can cause stress on the average, everyday tax-paying citizen as it becomes very expensive to house the over one-hundred and fifty thousand sentenced prisoners each year (US Bureau of Justice Statistics). That number adds up, because even with the over six hundred thousand offenders released each year, there are even more that remain in the prison system (US Bureau of Justice Statistics). The total number of prisoners in the U.S. state and federal correctional facilities, which includes prisons, rehabilitation centers, and juvenile detention centers, is 1,574,700 (US Bureau of Justice Statistics). This cycle of overpopulation needs a long-term fix, not some cookie-cutter solution that will only alleviate the problem temporarily. Due to the
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, more commonly referred to as simply ADHD, is the most commonly diagnosed disorder among American children today. According to the National Institute on Mental Health an estimated 3 to 5 percent of school age children are affected by this disorder. (1) There are more diagnosed cases of ADHD of in the United States than there are anywhere in the world. The main symptoms of ADHD include "developmentally inappropriate levels of attention, concentration, activity, distractibility, and impulsivity." (1) While the number of people diagnosed with ADHD increases dramatically every year, there is still much about the disorder that is not understood. While scientists have deduced that ADHD originates in the brain, they still have many questions about the nature of it. The classification of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has become quite a controversial topic in American society today. There are some who believe that by recognizing the symptoms associated with the disorder as ADHD; science is simply putting a band-aid on a problem that could be otherwise corrected with behavior modification.
ADHD is broken into three subtypes. The first is those who are impulsive and hyperactive. The second type is made up from those who are inattentive only. The third group is those who display all of these symptoms combined. In the United States, 3-5% of children show signs of this disorder. It has also been shown that the disorder is more dominant in boys. Many children with ADHD do not outgrow this disorder and carry it on into their adult lives. Various studies have shown that two-thirds of children with ADHD still have the disorder in their 20’s making it is a problem which affects children and adults alike.
The United States at present has the highest incarceration rate that costs taxpayers millions of dollars and continually has our county jails operating over their rated capacities.(Hess 2008). A significant number of the jails in the United States are overcrowded, and this has been a management issue which has been in existence for years. Jail overcrowding has become one of the major financial and controversial problem in the United States. The jail population is increasing rapidly, which has caused a lot of tension on the management team to be able to perform their duties efficiently and has raised a lot question by The increase population of inmates in many county jails has raised a lot
...evidence also showed that ADHD is polygenic with many different genes being involved. Yet, there is still confusion about the question which genes can be associated with ADHD. The contradicting findings suggest that ADHD is genetically complex and more molecular genetic studies are necessary to provide a more sophisticated account on the matter. Nevertheless, environmental factors seem to have a profound influence on the expression of the genes that cause ADHD. An evolutionary advantage of ADHD might exist, however the evidence points in a different direction. The provided studies showed that individuals diagnosed with ADHD were more likely to exhibit behavior that is not of much use to an academic environment and can lead to conflicts with the law enforcement, which might indicate that ADHD is in the view of a modern society clearly a disability with no upside.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is very commonly known. Today, ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders among children. The NIMH (The national institute of mental health) predicts that it affecting 3 to 5 percent of all children(AACAP), with an approximate amount of 30% to 65% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood (AACAP).There are three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, Predominantly Inattentive Type, and Combination Type(ehow.com). The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three main categories; hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. These behaviors can interfere with ADHD sufferers’ ability to focus deliberately on organizing and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy. A case of this kind of behavior is recognized in a report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behavior (clinicaltrials.gov) These kinds of behaviors can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem, depending on severity of their symptoms (adhd.com). In this paper, the multiple factors of how ADHD affects, and is handled, of those who undergo this disorder, are shown.
ADHD is a disorder that has been on the rise for several years now. The disorder is one that can cause many impairments to a child’s attention span, making it difficult to concentrate and to keep on task, especially on schoolwork. (Graham, 2007) The statistics have been growing ...
“Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a condition in which a person not only has a great difficulty concentrating for more than a few minutes but also is inattentive, impulsive, and overactive” (The Developing Person Through the Life Span, page 310). Both children and adults are diagnosed with ADHD, but children hold a higher percentage of this diagnosis because the disorder usually appears in early to middle childhood. “The average age of ADHD diagnosis was 7 years of age, but children reported by their parents as having more severe ADHD were diagnosed earlier” (Web, CDC). The symptoms of childhood ADHD, from a personal standpoint, seem to almost mirror what I have observed as normal (developmental) childhood behavior (angst). “The main symptom, (among the three main symptoms) of ADHD is the inability to pay attention. Kids may have trouble listening to a speaker, following directions, finishing tasks, or keeping track of personal items. They may daydream often and make careless mistakes” (WebMD). These characteristics belong to all children which ask the question, emphatically, is childhood ADHD over diagnosed? Pertaining to children, the inability to pay attention is followed by hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Although many children are diagnosed with ADHD, legitimately, there are concerns that children are overmedicated. Maybe parents are as much responsible for over diagnosing children as doctors.
Many psychologists regard ADHD as a state deficit, where children are highly aroused to compensate for the body’s feeling of under arousal. (Kerns, Eso, Thomson, 1999) Three main features of ADHD are 1.Impulsivity, the children often act before they consider consequences 2.Hyperactivity, the children struggle to sit still 3.Inattentiveness, the children have difficulty focusing on a subject because of the overload of stimuli in the environment. Research may indicate that ADHD has biological origins and set symptoms, such as fidgeting, excessive talking, difficulty maintaining concentration, impulsive behavior, lack of focus and messiness. (http://www.mnsi.net/~collinsw/ritalin.htm) According to the Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology, in a recent conference held by the NIMH, National Institute of Mental Health, the validity of the diagnosis of ADHD was held in question. (www.breggin.com) The cause of ADHD is unknown as of yet, and speculation is all psychologists have to diagnose and treat patients. The DSM-IV has categorized ADHD by the three dimensions listed above and included 18 symptoms under the three categories, which include some listed above. ADHD has undergone significant renaming and evaluation since the last publication of the Diagnostic Statistic Manual. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity, was referred to as ADD or sometimes ADD-H, Attention Deficit Disorder with hyperactivity. (www.journals.cup.org)
Why Jesus' Last Meal was Important for Him and His Disciples and How Christians Might Interpret and Celebrate this Meal in the Church Today
The proliferation of prison overcrowding has been a rising concern for the U.S. The growing prison population poses considerable health and safety risks to prison staffs and employees, as well as to inmates themselves. The risks will continue to increase if no immediate actions are taken. Whereas fighting proliferation is fundamentally the duty of the U.S. government, prison overcrowding has exposed that the U.S. government will need to take measures to combat the flaws in the prison and criminal justice system. Restructuring the government to combat the danger of prison overcrowding, specifically in California, thus requires reforms that reestablishes the penal codes, increases the state’s budget, and develops opportunities for paroles to prevent their return to prison. The following context will examine and discuss the different approaches to reduce the population of state prisons in California in order to avoid prison overcrowding.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), once called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, is one of the most common mental disorders among children. (Elia, Ambrosini, Rapoport, 1999) It affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, with approximately 60% to 80% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood, causing a lifetime of frustrated dreams and emotional pain. There are two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an inattentive type and a combined type. The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This behaviour stops ADHD sufferers from focussing deliberately on organising and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy, learning new skills or information is proved to be impossible. An example of such behaviour is recognised by the report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behaviour. Such behaviour can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem. (National Institute of Mental Health 1999) There are also secondary symptoms which are associated with ADHD, such as learning disorders, anxiety, depression and other mood disorders, tic disorders, and conduct disorders. (Spencer, Biederman, and Wilens 1999 in Monastra V, Monastra D, George, 2002)
In “The Birthmark,” written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Hawthorne expresses many themes to readers that appear within the short story. The main theme that occurs throughout the story derives from a request by one of the main characters. The fact that Aylmer says, “Georgiana, has it never occurred to you that the mark upon your cheek might be removed,” (Hawthorne 333) forcefully expresses that he wants his wife to remove the birthmark. As the process of removing a birthmark is challenging, Aylmer, being the scientist he is, believes that he is capable of doing the job. Over the course of the story, Aylmer and Georgiana go back and forth about whether it is safe or not to remove the birthmark. Later on, Georgiana finally allows her husband to start