Most people when they take Rohypnol will suffer from a form of amnesia that prohibits memory formation for as long as they have the drug in the body. Too much of rohypnol can lead to overdose. The chances of overdosing increases substantially when rohypnol is mixed with alcohol and or other drugs. Using rohypnol can affect your self control. Rohypnol is used in “date rape” and other assaults because it is a sedative that can make you unconscious and immobilize you making it easier for people to tae advantage of others.
It is classified as an amphetamine, which help the body’s system speed up (Drug Fact Sheet). These can look like a pill, or powder, as can cocaine and meth. They are abused by being taken in both ways, and cause the same effect as cocaine, a slower but more focused mind. Amphetamines can increase blood pressure and cause loss of appetite and exhaustion. People that want to stop Adderall cannot because of the feeling that it gives them, and the cravings their bodies get.
Opioids slow down the pain signals reaching the brain. They affect an area of the brain that controls emotion, so it also slows down how you think about the pain. A few of these drugs would be hydrocodones, morphines, codeins, and oxycodone. (national institute on drug abuse 2014(2)) Stimulants are used to increase energy, alterness and increase how well you pay attention. Physically stimulants can increase blood pressure and your hear rate.
(Dubovsky and Thomas 1995). Use of agonists, to bind to and activate receptors, will produce anxiolytic effects and inhibit anxiety. Additionally, lesions surrounding these substrates will also generate anxiolytic effects. (Tye, Iverson, Green 1979, van der maelen, matheson, wilderman, patterson 1986). Busiprone is an example of such agonists used for produce of anxiolytic effects.
The µ1 subtype is involved in analgesia more than the µ2 since, the second subtype, which is involved more in the respiratory depression. In addition, the µ2 subtype is also involved in mediating bradycardia and physical dependence (Hasslesstrom & Sawe 2001). The presence of Morphine makes the G-protein active and this is important for it to bind to the receptor. Upon being activated, the G protein alters the permeability at the neural receptors (Chay, Duff, & Walker 2002). When the permeability is affected, neuronal activity is altered through hyperpolarization of the membrane.
Medication errors: Emerging solutions. BJCP 2009; 67(6): 589-591. 7. Paul DM. Role of Pharmacist in Reducing Medication Errors.
It binds to and inhibits the excitatory... ... middle of paper ... ... Sigma-1 receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of dextromethorphan. At recreational doses, DXM releases 5-HT and therefore can be possibly an antidepressant. Dextromethorphan is a contender in reducing withdrawal symptoms from heroin and opiates. DXM can increase the efficacy of clonidine in reducing withdrawal symptoms as well as reduce the need for opioid agonists to ease the withdrawal symptoms. Quinidine actually reduced or nullified the effects of DXM on the withdrawal symptoms on opioid dependent subjects.
Amphetamines are typically used to provide the same effect that pure adrenaline does. The drug is specified for people with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity as well as narcolepsy, although if you decide to abuse the drug and use it for recreational purposes you may start to feel paranoia and nervousness. Using amphetamines can also put a strain on the circulatory system by causing the user's blood pressure to increase suddenly. (Amphetamine) Long term psychological effects of the drug can cause something called amphetamine psychosis which is much like paranoid schizophrenia. This could lead towards hallucinations, paranoid delusions, and obsessions.
Since the emergence of drug dependence, there have been numerous attempts to reduce the effects that the opiates have on individuals and more so to stop the widespread addiction. The opiates are excellent in pain reduction, but it is their ability to cause euphoria to the user that makes them so attractive to most addicts. There are several ways of treating dependence of opiates. Ironically, it seems that drug use best practice lies in the use of more drugs. However, several forms of treatment have to be administered in order to give the drug user a realistic chance of overcoming dependency.
Since the production of Ritalin (brand name for Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) during the mid-1940s, it has been enhanced and formulated to treat various disorders such as fatigue and depression but it was not until the 1960s when it was discovered to be effective in treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It has also since been used to treat Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). (Unknown, Ritalin, 2013) ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder caused by chemical imbalances in the brain resulting in an inability to focus; a short attention span; hyperactivity; impulsive behaviour and restlessness. However, this may be managed with the help of Ritalin. (Nordqvist, What is ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)?