Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that displays as distracted, hyperactive, and unable to focus on tasks and activities. Also known as Hyperkinetic Impulse Disorder, Hyperkinesis, Hyperactive Syndrome, Minimal Brain Damage, Minimal Brain Dysfunction, and Undifferentiated Deficit Disorder, ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in children. Although many children with ADHD are quite intelligent, their lack of focus can frequently lead to poor grades and a low self esteem. The exact cause of ADHD is still unknown, but it is considered highly inheritable. Results from numerous international studies on twins have found that ADHD may have a genetic link. The occurrence of ADHD in one twin is more often mirrored an identical twin who has the same genetic makeup, then in a fraternal twin whose genetics are similar but not identical. It is also believed that if a parent, uncle, or grandparent had ADHD, it is more likely their family may develop it as well. No gene has been discovered that directly relates to the disorder. MRI studies comparing the brains of children with and without the condition have shown that children with ADHD have weaker brain activity in the frontal area of the brain when responding to tasks that require inhibition. Because of this, it is thought that ADHD affects certain sections of the frontal cortex, parietal lobe, and possibly parts of the cerebellum. ADHD presents itself in three major categories; predominately hyperactive, predominately inattentive, or a combined hyperactivity and inattention. Predominately hyperactive presents as excessive physical activity and impulsive behaviors. This can include constant fidgeting, an inability to stay in ... ... middle of paper ... ...nd drugs, and exercising can all lessen symptoms. The prognosis for ADHD is promising. Approximately 70-80% of patients treated with stimulant therapy experience significant relief from symptoms. About half of all children outgrow the symptoms as they mature into adulthood, the other half retain symptoms throughout their adult life. Works Cited Hoyle, Brian. “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Gale Encyclopedia of Neurological Disorders. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 17 May. 2012 http://www.encyclopedia.com Zieman, Gayle and Dewan, Naakeesh A. “Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adults.” RelayClinical Education. Feb. 2012 v2012 i1 pNA “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).” Tish Davidson, AM., Teresa G. Odle., and Laura Jean Cataldo, RN, Ed.D. The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders. 3rd Edition. 2010.

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