Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that displays as distracted, hyperactive, and unable to focus on tasks and activities. Also known as Hyperkinetic Impulse Disorder, Hyperkinesis, Hyperactive Syndrome, Minimal Brain Damage, Minimal Brain Dysfunction, and Undifferentiated Deficit Disorder, ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in children. Although many children with ADHD are quite intelligent, their lack of focus can frequently lead to poor grades and a low self esteem. The exact cause of ADHD is still unknown, but it is considered highly inheritable. Results from numerous international studies on twins have found that ADHD may have a genetic link. The occurrence of ADHD in one twin is more often mirrored an identical twin who has the same genetic makeup, then in a fraternal twin whose genetics are similar but not identical. It is also believed that if a parent, uncle, or grandparent had ADHD, it is more likely their family may develop it as well. No gene has been discovered that directly relates to the disorder. MRI studies comparing the brains of children with and without the condition have shown that children with ADHD have weaker brain activity in the frontal area of the brain when responding to tasks that require inhibition. Because of this, it is thought that ADHD affects certain sections of the frontal cortex, parietal lobe, and possibly parts of the cerebellum. ADHD presents itself in three major categories; predominately hyperactive, predominately inattentive, or a combined hyperactivity and inattention. Predominately hyperactive presents as excessive physical activity and impulsive behaviors. This can include constant fidgeting, an inability to stay in ... ... middle of paper ... ...nd drugs, and exercising can all lessen symptoms. The prognosis for ADHD is promising. Approximately 70-80% of patients treated with stimulant therapy experience significant relief from symptoms. About half of all children outgrow the symptoms as they mature into adulthood, the other half retain symptoms throughout their adult life. Works Cited Hoyle, Brian. “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Gale Encyclopedia of Neurological Disorders. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 17 May. 2012 http://www.encyclopedia.com Zieman, Gayle and Dewan, Naakeesh A. “Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adults.” RelayClinical Education. Feb. 2012 v2012 i1 pNA “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).” Tish Davidson, AM., Teresa G. Odle., and Laura Jean Cataldo, RN, Ed.D. The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders. 3rd Edition. 2010.
ADHD also known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a condition including attention difficulty, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. To be fit for having ADHD a person must have six or more symptoms of inattentions. Scientist see majority of ADHD in young people. 9% of children that are between three and seventeen are diagnosed with ADHD ( Center of Disease Control and Prevention). “How does ADHD Affect the brain?” By Liji Tomas is and educational new article that tells the reader how someone diagnosed with ADHD brain functions and their findings during their research. The article has many interesting findings such as the effects of each part of the brain and what symptoms come along with it.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), once called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, is one of the most common mental disorders among children. (Elia, Ambrosini, Rapoport, 1999) It affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, with approximately 60% to 80% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood, causing a lifetime of frustrated dreams and emotional pain. There are two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an inattentive type and a combined type. The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This behaviour stops ADHD sufferers from focussing deliberately on organising and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy, learning new skills or information is proved to be impossible. An example of such behaviour is recognised by the report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behaviour. Such behaviour can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem. (National Institute of Mental Health 1999) There are also secondary symptoms which are associated with ADHD, such as learning disorders, anxiety, depression and other mood disorders, tic disorders, and conduct disorders. (Spencer, Biederman, and Wilens 1999 in Monastra V, Monastra D, George, 2002)
The percentages in each group are not well established, but at least an estimated 15-20% of children with ADHD maintain the full diagnosis into adulthood. As many as 65% of these children will have ADHD or some residual symptoms of ADHD as adults.
ADHD stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Psychiatric Association has identified three subtypes of ADHD including Combined Type (Both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms), Predominantly Inattentive Type (Inattention, but not enough hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms), Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (Hyperactivity-impulsivity, but not enough inattention symptoms). ADHD affects 8-10% of school-aged children. Research indicates the frontal lobe (basal ganglia, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, and other areas) plays a significant role in ADHD because they are involved in complex processes that regulate behavior. These higher order processes are often called executive functions. Executive functions include processes like inhibition, working memory, planning, self-monitoring, verbal regulation, motor control, maintaining, and changing mental set and emotional regulation. A person with ADHD often feels like they have information bouncing around in the brain. There are many different things poppin...
Jensen, Peter S. Lori Kettle, Margret T Roper. "Are Stimulants Overprescribed? Treatment of ADHD in Four U.S. Communitites." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychology. 38 7 (1999): 797-804.
ADHD, or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. There are many symptoms associated with ADHD but the most common include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity. Scientists are not exactly sure of what causes ADHD but they are more comfortable with the idea that a lot of different factors play a role in its development, such as, genes, environment, brain injuries, sugar, and food additives. The most widely used treatment is the drugs but this is not the only way to treat ADHD.
Children today seem to be plagued with a chronic psychiatric condition called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, otherwise known as ADHD. Estimates suggest that this disorder is affecting 3% to 5% of the children in this country (Bussing 233). In the United States this means reference is being made to nearly 5 million ADHD children. ADHD isn¡¦t just some convenient or fancy term for what parents would call a child who misbehaves. This condition, recognized in previous years as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Minimal Brain Dysfunction, Minimal Brain Damage, Hyperkinesis and Hyperactivity, is a serious medical condition that is thought to cause inappr...
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), more commonly referred to as ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder), has only recently come to notice of scientists. It affects 3.5 million people under the age of 18 and 5 million people over the age of 18. Its current cause of existence is due to defects at neurotransmitter sites, rendering patients inattentive and impulsive. However, every year more progress is made in locating the cause and finding more effective treatments. ADHD's first diagnosis was made in 1902 by Dr. George Still. He observed 20 children who were inattentive, impulsive, hyperactive, and showed mood swings. He initially attributed their behavior to mild brain damage. By 1917 ADHD or constantly active was still thought to have this cause. At this time, viral encephalitis seemed to be linked to the disease because, after being infected, children had impaired attention, memory, and impulse control. In 1937 ADHD was known as minimal brain dysfunction and began to be treated with amphetamines, which made children with the disorder much calmer.
It is normal for children to have trouble focusing and behaving at one time or another. But for children with the disorder these symptoms are constantly occurring in their young lives. The symptoms continue and can cause difficulty in several settings. This behavioral disorder is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together but one can occur without the other. When present, the symptoms of hyperactivity are almost always visible at the age of seven years and may be also visible at a younger age. The lack of attention is not completely obvious until the child faces certain situations, such as school work. A child with ADHD might have hard time paying attention, be easily distracted, have difficulty listening to others, daydream a lot, inter...
As this paper has shown, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is a traumatizing disorder to live with. It requires a great deal of support from all family members, school professionals, and medical professionals to help a child learn to live with ADHD. A child will rarely grow out of this disorder but will often find they deal with ADHD very well. It takes a lot of work for a child to learn to cope with ADHD. Most children, however, will grow up normal and live a very happy and healthy life.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is very commonly known. Today, ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders among children. The NIMH (The national institute of mental health) predicts that it affecting 3 to 5 percent of all children(AACAP), with an approximate amount of 30% to 65% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood (AACAP).There are three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, Predominantly Inattentive Type, and Combination Type(ehow.com). The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three main categories; hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. These behaviors can interfere with ADHD sufferers’ ability to focus deliberately on organizing and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy. A case of this kind of behavior is recognized in a report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behavior (clinicaltrials.gov) These kinds of behaviors can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem, depending on severity of their symptoms (adhd.com). In this paper, the multiple factors of how ADHD affects, and is handled, of those who undergo this disorder, are shown.
The most common behaviors of ADHD fall into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. People with ADHD may show several signs of being consistently inattentive. They may have a pattern of being hyperactive and impulsive, or they may show all three types of behavior. Inattention is when people have a hard time keeping their minds on any one thing and may get bored with a task after only a few minutes. They may find it agonizing to do homework without getting bored. Often they will forget to plan ahead by writing down the assignment or bringing home the right books. When finally trying to do work they may find themselves drifting to something else; as a result, work will rarely get done.
There has been an ongoing debate about whether the mental disorder ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is over-diagnosed. ADHD is commonly diagnosed in people, more specifically children, who lack the ability to pay attention, are often disruptive, are hyperactive, and impulsive. A medical personnel or a psychologist diagnoses the children using a list of criteria. It is only in recent years that doctors have begun researching better and more effective ways to diagnosis patients using brain scans. It is because of this, that ADHD is over-diagnosed for several reasons: the different personalities that children can exhibit; parents not taking responsibility as parents; and the lack of proper ways to identify ADHD.