Athens And Spartans Research Paper

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During the 5th century BC the Athenians and Spartans were the two most powerful groups in the Mediterranean region, both strong in their own ways these two superpowers eventually turned on each other. The flashpoint between Spartan and Athenian relations was at Poteidaia around 432 BCE, the crux of the matter was that Athenians wanted timber and minerals from the Thracians and demanded that fortifications would be removed from Poteidaia, who promptly contacted the Spartans for assistance. Athens learning this laid siege to the city and issued the Megarian Decrees, which prevented Megara from using any port in Athens or their allies, setting up a fierce trade embargo. At this point Sparta was to put it mildly, upset. Over the past few years Sparta had become more apprehensive about the increasing size of the Athenian navy and the spread of their influence, so this embargo was a step too far for the Spartans. Sparta asked Athens to repeal the embargo but the Athenians refused. Sparta not yet ready for another long conflict did not attack yet but waited to get involved until Thebes attacked Plataea (an Athenian ally) and in 431 Spartans invaded and ravaged Attica thus starting the First Peloponnesian War. Focusing on land-based attacks Spartan principal strategy was to annually attack Athenian lands causing as much destruction as possible in their wake. Spartans burned farms and chopped down olive trees and cut though vineyards. Spartan strategy was probably to entice the people of Athens out from behind their fortifications into open battle, where Spartans had the advantage, due to rigorous military and battle training. Although Spartans did have the advantage on land they were fairly useless in the sea, Athens could retalia... ... middle of paper ... ...organ that one would need in the afterlife. These jars were usually grouped in fours and placed alongside the sarcophagus,the baboon-headed Hapy, guarded the lungs. The human-headed, Imsety was the guardian of the liver, while jackal-headed Duamutef guarded the stomach and upper intestines and falcon-headed Qebehsenuef guarded the lower intestines. With the development and increasing complexity of Egyptian culture these jars became more and more decorative first only being plain during the time of the Old Kingdom, inscribed during the Middle Kingdom and topped with human heads and from the Nineteenth Dynasty on they appear with the classical examples of the Four Sons of Horus lids. The development of these funerary items marks the advancement of Egyptian culture, and demonstrates that with lush resources culture has the ability to become more and more complex.

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