Corinth, aiding the people of Potidaea faced an embargo by Athens. Enraged by this act Sparta appealed the Athenians to end the embargo, but was ignored. Sparta conviened the peloponnesian council and Greece moved one step closer to the peloponnesian war. It could be argued that Sparta and Athens were already preparing for war with each other and that the support of their allies’ wars against each other was not a direct cause of the war but si... ... middle of paper ... ...led to a natural distrust between the two cultures. Pericles, the Athenian ruler before and during the Peloponessian war once compared the “living force of Athenian freedom with the dead hand of Spartan tyranny”.
However, once this common enemy was defeated, Sparta and Athens began to become great rivals vying for control of Greece. This resulted in the First and Second Peloponnesian Wars, which saw the rise and fall of the Athenian Empire. Sparta eventually rose to be the victor with the assistance of their former enemy Persia, but the era city-states would not live on for very much longer. The Peloponnesian Wars should be studied, because it details the rise and fall of one of the greatest city-states in Greek history.
(http://www.warhorsesim.com/epw_hist.html). Pericles' death was significant. The Athenians had lost one of their greatest leaders. But even if the policies of Pericles had not been abandoned by the feeble Athenian democracy, the cost of the war would have proved too great and thus Athenian defeat was inevitable. It was a series of consequential events, spurred on by democratic failure, not one key turning point, that resulted in the decisive defeat of the Athenians by the Peloponnesians, with the aid of Persia.
The Roles of Greek Heroism and the Gods in the Persian Wars The Persian Wars (499-479 BC) put the Greeks in the difficult position of having to defend their country against a vast empire with an army that greatly outnumbered their own. Many city-states united in battle, although others found ways to avoid participation in the wars. The Greeks also relied on the words of Apollo to guide them, but the oracle did not always act encouragingly. The Greeks defeated the Persians in the Persian Wars due to heroic actions performed by Athens and Sparta and occasional assistance from the gods, but cowardice shown by other poleis nearly ended the Greeks’ chances of success. Unity between the Greek poleis could be seen occasionally in the battles of the Persian Wars, but not consistently.
This war would negatively affect Greece's world power, and it would pave the way for an invasion by Macedonia later in history. The Peloponnesian War would become a major part in the history of Classical Greece, and it would forever change the lives of the Greek people. The animosity between the great city-states of Athens and Sparta was not always present. In fact, the two powers were practically allies during the early 5th century B.C. During the Persian Wars, which started in 490 B.C., Athens and Sparta resisted invasion by Persia.
After this Darius began a plan to conquer Greece after the support they sent the Ionian revolt. In 490BC Darius sent a fleet to conquer the Cyclades, and then attack Athens and Eretria. Quickly conquering the Eretria, the Persians burned th... ... middle of paper ... ...reeks halted though and turned and began to fight the pursuing Persians. Mardonius was killed in this attack leading to disorder among the Persian lines. Without the Athenian stand, the battle along with the victory would not have been possible at Plataea.
Sparta on the other hand was also affected politically, and militarily but to a lesser effect. Athens was left in mayhem while Sparta was only feeling a little sore from the war but for the most part was rejoicing their win. The aftermath of the war not only affected Athens and Sparta, but Greece as a whole. Greece was severely weakened by the war and with its ignorant leader, Sparta; Phillip II of Macedonia was able to conquer Greece. As a result of the Peloponnesian War Greece was conquered by Phillip II of Macedonia which shows how the aftermath of the war was worse than the war itself.
In 477, Athens formed the Delian League whose goal was push Persia out for good. The second most powerful city-state, Sparta, did not see Persia as a threat and refused to join the League. The allies of Sparta followed their friend and the country became torn into two halves. As time passed, Athens grew stronger and the League became a machine for expansion of Athenian imperialism. Athens demanded high taxes and tributaries from the other member of the League.
The causes of the Peloponnesian War proved to be too great between the tension-filled stubborn Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta. As Thucydides says in Karl Walling’s article, “Never had so many human beings been exiled, or so much human blood been shed” (4). The three phases of the war, which again, are the Archidamian war, the Sicilian Expedition and the Decelean war, show the events that followed the causes of the war, while also showing the forthcoming detrimental effects that eventually consumed both Athens and eventually Sparta effectively reshaping Greece.
In early fifth century BC Greece, the Greeks consistently suffered from the threat of being conquered by the Persian Empire. Between the years 500-479 BC, the Greeks and the Persians fought two wars. Although the Persian power vastly surpassed the Greeks, the Greeks unexpectedly triumphed. In this Goliath versus David scenario, the Greeks as the underdog, defeated the Persians due to their heroic action, divine support, and Greek unity. The threat of the Persian Empire's expansion into Greece and the imminent possibility that they would lose their freedom and become subservient to the Persians, so horrified the Greeks that they united together and risked their lives in order to preserve the one thing they all shared in common, their "Greekness".