It is one of the most studied wars in history. The Peloponnesian War ravaged Greece for over 30 years during the 5th century B.C., and had a permanent effect on the Greek world. Athens and Sparta, two major city-states, fought each other relentlessly for control of the Mediterranean. The once great empire of Athens would ultimately be defeated, and its counterpart Sparta would be weakened severely as well. This war would negatively affect Greece's world power, and it would pave the way for an invasion by Macedonia later in history.
Greece The two most dominating city-states in Greece of their time, Athens and Sparta, were great rivals with two very different ways of life. Sparta’s overbearing military and Athens’ impartial justice system and government are models for many modern day countries. Even though these two city-states differ greatly from one another, they share many characteristics of their country and their time period. Athens and Sparta were the two most powerful Greek territories of their time. Like most cities of the same country, they have the same Greek culture, worshipping the same Greek gods and speaking Greek.
Throughout the centuries, civilizations have prospered and fallen with only their effects left on the world as their evidence of their existence. Ancient Greece is widely accepted as the most influential civilization ever, with the Golden Age of ancient Athens being its pinnacle. The Golden Age of Athens began when Athens became the most powerful Greek city-state, centralizing their power following their victory of the Greco-Persian wars. Following Athens’ victory over Persia, Athenians entered a golden age due to a strong economy, military and government and faith of the people. The Battle of Marathon took place in Athens in 490 BCE, and the citizens fought against the invading Persian army.
A "Golden Age" for Athens? The 5th century BCE was a period of great development in Ancient Greece, and specifically in Athens. The development of so many cultural achievements within Athens and the Athenian Empire has led scholars to deem this period a "Golden Age." It is true that his period had many achievements, but in the light of the Athenians treatment of women, metics (non-Athenians living in Athens), and slaves it is given to question whether or not the period can truly be called "Golden." The 5th century and the Athenian Empire gave birth to an amazing amount of accomplishments.
Ancient Greeks influenced the Ancient world and the modern world greatly politically, intellectually, and artistically. The Greeks progressed from living in small settlements into owning a great empire that expanded from the west to the east, and from north to south throughout the world. The unique geography of Greece and the rise of its city-states resulted in great diverse influences to everyone that has ever lived. Greek societies taught us so much, and without them people would most probably be way less intellectual and a lot less creative, and I think that Greeks should be always thanked for the knowledge they gave to humanity. Due to all of this, Greek is the birth of civilization.
The Persians then marched to Athens for revenge. The Greeks defeated the Persian Navy at the battle of Salamis that same year proved to be turning point in the conflict and Xerxes withdrew most of his men in Asia. The finale battle of the Persian War was near Plataea in 479 B.C with Greeks winning. In 477 B.C, the Delian League was formed. The members were Greek city-states, who band together to protect themselves against future threats by the Persian Empire.
It first appeared in the south of Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, and later on in the Persian Empire, and Rome before arriving in Athens . The disease attacked the population of Piraeus and then travelled to Athens where the death tolls were greater. The plague came back in 429 were it claimed the most lives, and later on in the winter of 427/426 B.C were it claimed more lives. From man to woman, the rich and the poor, and the elderly and the young, everyone in the Athenian population was affected by the disease. As it will become evident, the Plague of Athens devastated Athens and which made it harder to recover from , as it resulted in the failure of its social order, weakened the Athenian government, and the Athenian military.
This is also a time when Athens created a direct democracy. In this golden age Athens also made significant advancements in science, math, and literature. Athens made many great contributions to many fields, but the two most significant advancements were in architecture and government, but the single handily the most important was government. These advancements continue to influence many societies today. After the Greeks defeated the Persians in the Persian war the Greek city-states created, the Delian league, which was founded in 478 B.C, and Athens and nicknamed “Athens and their allies” ran it.
Throughout the Ancient Greek world, there have been many wars and standoffs. However, there has been only one which changed the course of Greek history forever; the Peloponnesian War. Caused by the growing tension between Athens and Sparta, it came and left, leaving only destruction in its wake. The defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War caused the downfall of Greece, and the end of the Classical Age. The roots of the Peloponnesian war can be traced long before 431 BCE, when it officially started.
Ancient Greece has gone through many changes throughout history. The most notorious age was the Hellenistic Age but had many different ages leading up to it. The Bronze Age (3300-1150 B.C) was a period where the world saw major advances in social, economical, and technology that made Greece the hub of activity in the Mediterranean area. The Archaic Age (700-480 B.C.E) was a period when the Greeks repopulated and became more organized politically. This age was followed by the Classical Age (480-323 B.C.E) a period when Athens and Sparta dominated the Hellenic world with their cultural and historical achievements.