Wundt created a laboratory strictly for the study of psychology. Another key player is Edward Titchener who founded the first experimental psychology lab in the United Sates. One of the most important documents written in psychology, The Principles of Psychology, was written by William James. With all of these great minds at work an argument arose. The argument was about the right subjects to study and the correct methods to use while studying them.
It is carried out by social scientists (including psychologists) and usually follow a step-by step approach. It “is a practical activity aimed at answering a research question by means of a research strategy, a research design and a method (or methods) of data collection and analysis. Any research strategy has implications for the research design and the use of methods of data collection and analysis (research methods)” (Kelly, 2011). Having said that, considering the different epistemological and ontological underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, this paper will discuss whether their opposed position is a misleading representation of the reality of social research practice. Epistemology asks ‘how can I know reality?’ Ontology asks ‘what is reality?’ Epistemology describes the type of knowledge which is conceivable, legitimate and imaginable (Crotty, 1998).
Psychology is a type of science because psychologists share a basic assumption with all other scientists. Psychology methods can range from simple to complex. There are several research methods in psychology, and the outcome is relatively different for each. Each method studies and tests different situations. “The goals of psychologist are to make predictions about the conditions that gave rise to them, and then use that knowledge to predict and possibly to control events in the future”.
He was known as the father of operant conditioning. Skinner’s experiments have paved the way for many ideas and theories that may be developed by future generation psychologists. He was responsible for writing many books that also have helped in understanding behaviorism. He tried to explain how human behavior would change if the environment were manipulated. In my opinion, Skinner was one of the most well known psychologists.
Research is to find information and solve problem systematic and logically. In psychology, scientific research method is implemented to approach and reveal knowledge in better understanding of our human mind and behaviour. This research is known as basic research. Applied research is to solve and analysis on psychological problem. Psychology research is needed to identify the problem and find solution to solve problem encounter.
After the hypothesis are created, experts begin to examine the predictions by comparing them to nature. If a hypothesis does not pass the examination then it is tossed to the curb, however when the hypothesis succeeds it becomes “a well-tested and widely accepted view that the scientific community agrees best explains certain observable facts,” also known as a scientific theory (Tarbuck & Lutgens, 2015, p.33). The scientific method is a well thought out process, but once it is complete, there is success for every researcher that was
From these observations we form a theory, later refining the theory as new observations shed light on the subject matter. This scientific theory creates a hypothesis, the testable prediction. Psychologists use various methods of research such as the case study, the survey, naturalistic observation, correlation, and experimentation. In case studies, a psychologist will study one individual in depth. This process can show us what can happen and provide ideals which we can later infer to others.
There is however a difference between a hypothesis and a theory. A hypothesis is in place so that psychologists can ask questions, make guesses and experiment for different variables. A theory, however, is the explanation of an experiment. You can state an experiment as a theory once you have an answer and can continue no longer with experimentations. However, a hypothesis cannot function without its independent and dependent variables.
There are many insightful people behind all these intuitive inventions and discoveries. These intuitive tasks take birth in the thought process of the individuals who are venturing to get a solution for the uncertainty in their minds. These people do a lot of background work, get solutions for the concerns and perform lots of observations, experiments to the solutions they arrived at to conclude a result. This process is often called as Scientific Method. Robert Millikan, a Noble prize winner for Physics, once said, ‘Science walks forward on two feet, namely theory and experiment.
They already described and understood the problem, so an experiment would be created. Based on the behavior pattern results, the psychologists must predict the reasoning and help certain people control their anger. The purpose of the four goals is to help researchers gain knowledge, and discover solutions to the problems (or disorders) that have been haunting humans. To further explain human behavior in different ways, psychologists use the five major perspectives (neuroscience, cognitive, behavioral, humanistic, and psychodynamic). The neuroscience perspective includes how people and nonhumans function biologically (Feldman, 2013).