In Pavlov’s study of digestion in dogs, he began to recognize that the lab dogs would salivate before being given their food. He was curious about his observation and began to pursue further investigation. Paying closer attention, Pavlov noticed that the dogs would begin salivating when the research assistants entered the lab to feed the dogs (A). He noticed the dogs associating one stimulus with another and named this as classical conditioning. Years later Watson became curious whether or not the concept would be applicable to humans. For this, he began his study known as “Little Albert.” In Watson’s experiment, a young baby named Little Albert was presented with a with white rat. At the beginning of the experiment, Little Albert did not show fear towards the rat. The rat was then presented to Little Albert with a loud banging noise by hitting two bars together behind his head. When Little Albert l...
Watson conducted two very famous experiments with Little Albert and with Peter and the Rabbit. The Little Albert experiment consisted of showing little Albert a white rat. When little Albert reached for the rat, a steel bar behind him crated a loud noise every time Albert reached to touch the mouse. After repeating the procedure various times, little Albert, who was first drawn to the rat, was now frightened of the rat. After the experiment was done Albert’s fear became generalized to other furry objects, such a fur coat, a Santa Claus mask, rabbits etc. Therefore, Watson was able to conclude that experience readjusted the stimuli that can ca...
Classical conditioning can be describe as a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. It was first described by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), a Russian physiologist, in 1903, and studied in infants by John B. Watson (1878-1958). In the 1920 's John b. Watson and Rosaline Rayner trailed to show how fear can be induced in an infant through classical conditioning. Designating conditional emotional reactions attempt would become the most infamous psychology studies that has been conducted and would be entitled "the case of little Albert”. Watson goal was to get Albert very afraid of the white rat by comparing the white rat with a very loud, clashing
Phobias can be developed through classical conditioning from an action or event. For example, if a person was to fall on an ant hill and they are swarmed and/or bitten by a colony of ants, that person may try and avoid ants all together. They may develop a fear of ants or a swarm of insects because of what happened in their past experience. The text book uses an example of a nine month old child who Watson and Rayner experimented this phobia with. The child was shown several objects, and one of the objects was a rat- the child showed no far, the child actually enjoyed playing with the rat. However when they tested the child’s reaction to loud noises it started the child. The child reacted to the loud noise by falling down, jumping, and crying. This experiment shows how people can develop a phobia through classical conditioning.
One of the most famous example of fear conditioning is the Little Albert experiment conducted by Watson and Rayner in 1920. In this experiment, an infant, Albert, was presented with a white rat, and as expected, Albert initially displayed no signs of fear and began touching and playing with the rat. Soon, the experimenters began pairing the presentation of the rat with a loud noise (US) produced by banging a hammer on a steel bar. The noise caused Albert to startle and cry (UR). After several pairing, Albert learned to fear the rat (CS) and would crawl away or cry (CR) when the rat was subsequently presented (Watson and Rayner, 1920)
Behaviorists believe that development is not tied to biologically determined stages. Development results from organization of existing behaviors. There are two categories of learning: classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning focuses on associations linked to involuntary behaviors. Pavlov is the father of modern learning theory. Through his experiment he discovered that an unconditioned stimulus could automatically trigger an involuntary response. For example, a dog was placed in a dark room and a light was turned on. After 30 seconds some food was placed in the dog’s mouth, stimulating the salivation reflex. This procedure was repeated several times- each time the presentation of food was paired with the light. After a while the light, which initially has no relationship to salivation, produced the response itself. The dog has been conditioned to respond to the light. In Pavlov’s terms, the presentation of food was the unconditioned stimulus. The light was a conditioned stimulus; its effect required conditioning. Salivation to the food was called the unconditioned reflex, salivation to the light a conditioned reflex.
...nt anxiety. The operant conditioning takes place when the person emits avoidance in the presence of the neutral stimulus, since the stimulus never created the initial anxiety. by escaping the CS and getting an immediate reduction in its fear-eliciting properties, the avoidance response is maintained. Another etiology of phobias is offered by social learning theory, which state that watching parental avoidance strategies learns phobic behaviors. Cognitive theorists emphasize the role played by expectancies in potentially dangerous consequences versus neutral situations. Expectancies acts like a mediator between the two. Avoidance responding is acquired in the presence of the warning sign through cognitive process of comparing expectations for when and when not to respond. In this way an aversive outcome is maintained as a consequence of interacting with anxiety.
- Janis and Feshbach, (1953) Effects of fear-arousing communication. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology.
The hypothesis was that little Albert could be taught to fear certain things, he would acquire a fear response to a white rat through classical conditioning after the white rat had been paired with a loud noise.
He picked a nine-month-old infant named Albert, to be the key learner in his experiment, which would be later called “The Little Albert Experiment” and be judged for ethical reasons. Initially, Watson showed Albert various stimuli –including but not limited to a white rat, a rabbit and a monkey- and tested his reactions, which were nothing but curiosity and happiness. For the second stage, he paired every stimulus he showed Albert with a loud hammer noise. Little Albert cried in response to the noise and paired the stimulus shown to him with the unpleasant noise in his unconscious mind. He created a conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus, the rat. Months after this experiment, Little Albert came back for the second round and the expected results emerged: he cried when he saw the rat in the absence of the hammer noise. He even cried when he saw things that resembled a rat, which confirms the theory of generalization, along with the theory of classical conditioning. The Little Albert Experiment shows us that the brain works with the information submitted to it and leaves no room to conscious
Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov in the early 1900’s while making an attempt to better understand digestion accidently stumble on what we now know as classical conditioning (Ormrod, 2012, p. 34). Using dogs, a bell and meat powder, Pavlov discovered when a stimulus that give a unconditioned
John Watson, after learning Ivan Pavlov’s theory of Classic Conditioning, believed it was worth exploring further. He believed that every person learned and perceived differently, which explained why there were differences in behavior. Watson and his assistant Rosalie Raynor conducted an experiment with a 9 month old infant known as Little Albert, according to Watson and Raynor, he was a healthy and well-adjusted boy with mild mannerisms . The experiment would attempt to condition fear of a white rat into Albert. First, Rosalie Raynor introduced Albert to multiple items, similar in sensation and texture; introduced to the rat, Santa Clause mask, a white fur coat, a monkey and burning newspaper, initially, Albert showed no fear. He was
century. In G. A. Kimble & K. Schlesinger (Eds.), Topics in the history of psychology (Vol. 2,
Watson, J. B. (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. The American Psychologist, 55(3), 313-317. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/
All the previous tests were done on a table with a mattress in a dark room with a little light. They showed the rabbit and dog with the sound of steel bar striking to freshen up Albert’s reaction before they tested again in a different environment. After he was taken to a brighter and bigger room while four adults were present, his reactions towards all animals got a little more positive but however, there was still slight bit of negative response. The dog suddenly barked which triggered a negative reaction and marked fear response in Albert while he was in that room. This part of the study showed that conditioned responses transfers even in different environments. Unfortunately Little Albert was removed from the hospital right after these tests were done so Watson did not get a chance to test methods of detachment of the conditioned response. He did however come up with several methods he would have tried on Albert like confronting him with what triggered his response continuously. Watson (2000) stated specifically, “By trying to "recondition" by showing objects calling out fear responses (vsual [sic]) and simultaneously stimulating the erogenous zones (tactual). We should try first the lips, then the nipples and as a final resort the sex organs” (p. 316). The other method he would have used would be to give Albert candy or food as the animal was shown to recondition his