Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the cognitive level of analysis

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This essay will discuss about how and why particular research methods are used to investigate the cognitive level of analysis. The cognitive level of analysis studies cognition, which refers to mental processes such as: perception, attention, language, memory, decision-making and problem solving. The mind, in terms of structures and processes which are involved in the reception, storage and use of knowledge, is studied in this level of analysis. In Psychology, research methods are used for collecting and analyzing data, in other words are ways they conduct their studies. There are a number of different research methods, the 3 main research methods that will be focused on in this essay are: lab experiments, brain imaging technologies and case studies. In the cognitive level of analysis, the most common research method would be lab experiments. Lab experiment is the only research method that shows cause-and-effect relationship between variables. It takes place in a laboratory or an artificial environment. The researcher would manipulate the IV and controls all the other variables, in order to avoid confounding variables. There is also a controlled environment and standardized procedures. There are three main strengths for this research method. First of all, it can establish cause-effect relationships. Secondly, there is variable control and accuracy of measurements, which indicates objectivity. As for the third strength, lab experiment is easy to replicate, thus increasing the reliability of results. On the other hand, three evident limitations can be observed. The first one would be artificiality, which may result in lack of ecological validity. Demand characteristics and experimenter effects contribute to biased results, w... ... middle of paper ... ...his man’s brain, which caused severe damage to his hippocampus and the frontal region of his brain. He couldn't form any new memories or recall his past ones then on, because now he has amnesia. He is a patient with anterograde, which is the failure to create and store memories after a trauma, and retrograde, which is the failure to access and store memories before a trauma. This study reveals that the mind can be looked at detaily, which provokes more research studies to be performed based on these patients’ clear insight brain images. In conclusion, various different methods have their own strengths and weaknesses. Researchers nowadays are able to specialize on particular parts of the brain. Since different methods can give different insights to the brain, therefore applying a range of different methods to the study of the same cognitive phenomenon is necessary.

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