7. Conclusion Research has been viewed as merely a process of collecting information, or simply a transferring of facts from one place to another, but research involves collection, organisation and interpretation of data. There are several methods used for conducting research, however, for the purpose of this essay only qualitative and quantitative research methods were reviewed. Furthermore, special attention was placed on the fact that in the process of conducting research, both qualitative and quantitative researchers face the issues of reliability and validity. Nonetheless, the response to these issues is that a certain extent of reliability and validity can be reached through establishing a degree of interobserver agreement with regards to accepting the believability of data.
The objectives of this essay are to discuss key elements of qualitative and quantitative research designs, including the distinction between them. The distinction between these two research designs will also be compared with scientific and non-scientific approaches. Empirical examples illustrating the usefulness of the two designs are also given. This essay will focus on the key characteristics on aspects of data being used and its collection techniques, how it’s used and analysed as discussed by Popper (1989), Ragin (2000), Flyvbjerg (20010, Janesick (2000), De Vaus (2001), Denzin (2000) and Greenstein, Roberts and Sitas (2003). Discussion Although the key elements of these two types of research design are essentially identical, there are some notable differences in terms of how data is collected and analysed.
Sociologists aim to “look behind curtains” to understand the complexity of society. Sociologist want to find out why people react and behave in certain ways. Its important for us to study sociology because its essential for peaceful and prosperous living. The study of society helps us analyze the quality of our everyday lives such as: Inequalities in the wealth of nations and classes, problems in gender relations, ethnic, racial and religious
Therefore, the issues of race, ethnicity and social constructions are best understood as themes of sociology. In the globalized world, there exist various diverse people with different racial backgrounds, different cultural values and beliefs as well as diverse social structures and constructions. The modern man intermingles with people having all the above traits and it is only through sociological approach that it becomes possible to relate and understand the people and their diverse backgrounds. On the other hand, the study of sociology provides us with social norms which are very useful in determination of the material cultures, non material cultures and the socializing agents in the society. These three components of a social system are very important in the running of the day to day life activities since they act as the guides towards human behaviors and the way in which human beings are expected or supposed to react to certain situations.
This is again rejected by Interactionists, who claim it is artificial, and also raises ethical issues to experiment on people. Interactionists prefer several methods to contrast with Structuralist methods, namely; unstructured interviews, covert participant observation, overt participant observation, and analysing historical, public and personal documents by content analysis. Interactionist methods generally reject the absolute need to provide statistics. Despite these criticisms, interactionist methods do allow flexibility. There can be hypotheses for many studies using interactionist methods.There can be hypotheses for many studies using ... ... middle of paper ... ...n preserving society and social order.
The study of sociology has leads to a greater understanding of how individual and groups interact at the local, national and worldwide level. The study of sociology has provided valuable understanding how human behaviour is shaped and influenced by the societal forces of group interaction. Sociologists study people as they form groups with one another. Also sociology places special emphasis on studying societies, both as individual entities and as element of a global perspective. The meaning of sociological theory A sociological theory is statements of why and how particular facts about the social world related.
Sociology as a whole deals with a lot responsibility and hard tasks. “Sociologists work within small local groups, organizational groups, and widescale or national groups to identify and resolve problems, their comprehensive efforts combine to create a more harmonious society” (Oksana, 2011, pg.1). The reason for the major I am in is to dig deep within to discover what is really going on in the society. Examining group of people, cultures, organizations, colleges or school, household, and so much more is part of the job. For instance, the Kohlberg’s Moral Dilemmas that talks about the man name Mr. Heinz.
Use of scientific methods Scientific methods refer to calculated research methodology that identifies a problem, provision of relevant data and a process of formulating the hypothesis based on experiments. The scientific method also involves systematic observation and testing of a specific hypothesis. Scientific methods constitute essential science experiments. The systematic methods are, used to determine naturally occurring phenomenon. This is a useful tool in explaining specific questions while maintain the area of focus.
Validity A research is valid to the world when a number of key concepts are used in the research design. The document must be organized and planned according to the criteria used in the field. Some important concepts to know include: validity, variable, operationalization, sample, measurement, measurement error, causation, plausible rival explanations, hypothesis, reliability, and unit of analysis. The researcher must learn how to apply each key concept in an effort to make the research study valuable. These concepts will be reviewed individually to be able to understand how to apply them when writing a research paper.
Researchers, who use this approach, analyze previous theoretical claims, questioning preceding findings and conclusions. Critical Research is also referred to as the transformative paradigm. Critical paradigms are used in qualitative research methods that include interviews and group discussions; these are techniques that allow for collaboration that can be carefully deployed in a way that avoid discrimination (Mackenzie & Knipe, 2006). Critical research analysis and interpretation seeks categories, patterns and themes to result in the data collection. The results are useful to identify ethical integrity and social injustices.