When chemical reactions occur in the body, enzymes are used to speed up the reactions and lower the energy of activation. The rate of reactions is increased due to the complex that is established by the enzyme and the substrate. This complex that forms between the two inhibit movement respective of the two and arranges the reactive groups of the substrates next to each other (1). Enzymes allow chemical equilibrium is able to be maintained throughout the reaction and are not consumed, while accelerating the reaction (2,3). Active sites on the enzymes are where the substrates bind, and the sites are specific to the substrate (2,3). The protein that makes up the enzyme has a particular shape, due to secondary and tertiary structures, that allows the substrate to bind to the enzyme. When the environment changes, such as the temperature or pH, the protein can be denatured and is then unable to catalyze reactions (3,4).
Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is an oxidizing agent and bleacher that is commonly used in household products. It is also used as an antiseptic for injuries in hospitals and at homes. However, hydrogen peroxide is toxic to cells in high levels due to how readily it transforms to a hydroxyl radical, OH- (5). Catalase is an enzyme whose job is to break down hydrogen peroxide, so it does not convert to the hydroxyl radical. When hydrogen peroxide is present in the cell, catalase catalyzes a reaction that transforms hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. This reaction causes bubbles to form (4). Without catalase, hydrogen peroxide can kill the cell.
The rate of reactions depends first on whether or not there are enzymes available to catalyze the reaction. If enzymes are available, other factors contribute to ...
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...ters, which is the exact amount made of the mixture without any reactions. With every other concentration, some reaction is occurring. As the percent of concentration goes up, the volume of the foam goes up, which mean the rate of the reaction is going up.
Hydrogen peroxide is often used for many things, both medically and for other products used by people everyday. Without the catalase enzyme, we would not be able to be around hydrogen peroxide at all because it would be dangerous to our cells. The greater the concentration of catalase the body contains, the quicker the reaction and the less susceptible humans are the dangers that can come with the contact to hydrogen peroxide. Larger concentrations of the enzyme allow us to use hydrogen peroxide as we need, even as a antiseptic for wounds, without the worry that it could kill us when it is in smaller concentrations
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