Health Behavior Theories
Health Behavior Theories
” Theories tell how and why things work; how and why one variable is related to another. Research findings that are theory based can be place in a framework that advances science further than findings that are unconnected to formal theory.” (O'Connell, 2009, p. 33).
The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the first theories of health behavior. It was developed in the 1950s by social psychologists in the U.S. Public Health Services to better understand the widespread failure of tuberculosis screening programs. Today it continues to be one of the most widely used theories. Research studies use it to explain and predict health behaviors seen in individuals. There is a broad range of health behaviors and subject populations that it is applied in. The concepts in the model involve perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals being studied create an understanding of their readiness to act on a health/behavioral factor based on their particular opinions on selected conditions. Several modifying factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or level of education, etc. can determine one’s opinion on their perceived threat of obtaining a disease such as lung cancer based on the severity of the triggers causing the illness. Their likelihood to change an opinion or behavior depends on their perceived benefits or certain barriers that may be out of their control. Interventions can be used to promote health behavior changes and aid in persuading or increasing awareness on a particular issue.
The health belief model is a mental health conduct change model created to clarify and anticipate health related practices, especially as to the uptake of wellbeing administrations. The health conviction model was created in the 1950s by social clinicians at the U.S. Public Health Service and is one of the best-known and most generally utilized hypotheses as a part of health conduct research. The health belief model recommends that individuals' convictions about health issues, saw advantages of activity and boundaries to activity, and self-adequacy clarify the absence of engagement in wellbeing advancing conduct. A jolt, or signal to activity, should likewise be available keeping in mind the end goal to trigger the health- promoting conduct.
Using the Health Belief Model, this study was to describe relationships among health care providers’ perceived susceptibility, actual risk of skin cancer, and the use of sunscreen. The idea was that If health care providers understand their own susceptibility to skin cancer, then there’s an increased chance that they will be able to influence others’ perceptions of their skin cancer susceptibility through more awareness. According to the Health Belief Model, the reason for preventive behavior could be the information received from the health care provider. It would be beneficial to explore what information health care providers share with their patients concerning skin cancer prevention, and whether it affects the patient’s decision to use
Aim of this paper is to examine and present the application of social cognition models in the prediction and alternation of health behavior. Social cognition models are used in health practices in order to prevent illness or even improve the health state of the individuals in interest, and protect their possibly current healthy state. This essay is an evaluation of the social cognition models when used to health behaviors. Unfortunately it is impossible to discuss extensively all the models and for this reason we will analyze three of the most representative cognitive models to present an integrated idea of their application.
Janz, N. K., & Becker, M. H. (1984). The health belief model: A decade later. Health Education & Behavior, 11(1), 1-47.
According to Leddy & Pepper (1993), assumptions from the Health Belief Model include the following aspects:
6). Workplace health promotion designed to improve lifestyle, and ultimately enhance health, the ability to function, and productivity (Rongen, Robroek, van Lenthe, & Burdorf, 2013, p. 406). Over the years, various theoretical models have evolved to “articulate variables involved in health behavior to predict participation and engage would be non-participants” (Galloway, 2003). Health Belief Model was one of the first theories of health behavior developed in 1950s by a group of social psychologists, who sought to explain what motivates public to participate in programs designed for wellness promotion and disease prevention (Nursing Theories, 2013). According to this model, preventative behaviors depend on the individuals’ beliefs, including their vulnerabilities to the disease, the effect of the disease on their lives, and the effect of health activities on reducing the disease severity and susceptibility (Sharafkhani, Khorsandi, Shamsi, & Ranjbaran, 2014, p.
Lets make it quite clear that change doesn’t happen overnight nor is it ever a process easy. To make a proper and healthy life-style behavior change, you must be dedicated to put in the time and effort that’s necessary for accomplish any goal. When I first began to become engage in exercising and becoming more physically fit I found that the Health Belief Model and the Social Cognitive Theory demonstrated the progression that I have made throughout my change. To begin you do not need to try and follow through the steps provided in any given model or a theory, the reasoning behind that statement is that everyone is different so our stages of change will all differ from one another. For me, once I decided that I wanted to begin attending group-fitness classes I found that through the Health Belief Model I had to understand the perceived benefits of my change, I had to
Theories of health behaviors that assume individuals exist within, and are influenced by social environment are called “interpersonal theories” (National Cancer Institute, U.S Department of Health and Human Services & National Institutes of Health, 2005). Interpersonal theories/models also focus on how individuals are influenced by the opinions, thoughts, behaviors, and support of the people he/she associates with and vice versa (how individual influences others). The social environment can affect a person’s behavior, as well as have an impact on one’s health (National Cancer Institute, U.S Department of Health and Human Services & National Institutes of Health, 2005).The names of the interpersonal theories/models, are the following: Social Cognitive Theory, Social Networks and Social Support Theory, Transactional Model of Stress and Coping, and