Health Belief Model–a paradigm used to predict and explain health behavior that is based on value-expectancy theory.
The health belief model is a mental health conduct change model created to clarify and anticipate health related practices, especially as to the uptake of wellbeing administrations. The health conviction model was created in the 1950s by social clinicians at the U.S. Public Health Service and is one of the best-known and most generally utilized hypotheses as a part of health conduct research. The health belief model recommends that individuals' convictions about health issues, saw advantages of activity and boundaries to activity, and self-adequacy clarify the absence of engagement in wellbeing advancing conduct. A jolt, or signal to activity, should likewise be available keeping in mind the end goal to trigger the health- promoting conduct.
Aim of this paper is to examine and present the application of social cognition models in the prediction and alternation of health behavior. Social cognition models are used in health practices in order to prevent illness or even improve the health state of the individuals in interest, and protect their possibly current healthy state. This essay is an evaluation of the social cognition models when used to health behaviors. Unfortunately it is impossible to discuss extensively all the models and for this reason we will analyze three of the most representative cognitive models to present an integrated idea of their application.
M.R. has no acute health needs, but could benefit from some behavioral positive changes. Pender’s theory “focuses on health promoting behaviors” (Blais & Hayes, 2011, p. 125). If this theory is applied effectively, individuals will be able to identify their current behavior and barriers as well as transform their environment influenced by health professionals towards a more balanced and positive lifestyle and behaviors (Blais & Hayes, 2011, p. 126). This theory is composed by several elements. First, this model considers individual characteristics and experiences. This block is subdivided into the influence of prior related behaviors and personal factors including biologic, psychologic, and sociocultural factors (Blais & Hayes, 2011, p. 126). Secondly, this theory considers behavior-specific cognitions and affect. According to Blais and Hayes (2011) this block is subdivided into individual’s perceived benefits of action (individual’s experiences will affect their participation in health promotion), perceived barriers (imagined or real elements that decrease health-promoting behaviors), perceived self-efficacy (belief that someone can carry out the behavior to achieve a desired outcome), activity-related affect (subjective feelings before, during, or after an activity), interpersonal influences (family, friends, or health professionals), and situational influences (direct or indirect environmental elements that foster health-promoting behaviors) (pp. 126-128). Moreover, Pender’s theory observes the individual’s commitment to a plan of action and identification of specific strategies to carry out a health promotion plan (Blais & Hayes, 2011, p. 129). Finally, this theory observes the individual’s immediate competing demands (work or family responsibilities) and preferences (the individual can choose them and control them) (Blais & Hayes, 2011, p. 129). All the concepts
The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the first theories of health behavior. It was developed in the 1950s by social psychologists in the U.S. Public Health Services to better understand the widespread failure of tuberculosis screening programs. Today it continues to be one of the most widely used theories. Research studies use it to explain and predict health behaviors seen in individuals. There is a broad range of health behaviors and subject populations that it is applied in. The concepts in the model involve perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals being studied create an understanding of their readiness to act on a health/behavioral factor based on their particular opinions on selected conditions. Several modifying factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or level of education, etc. can determine one’s opinion on their perceived threat of obtaining a disease such as lung cancer based on the severity of the triggers causing the illness. Their likelihood to change an opinion or behavior depends on their perceived benefits or certain barriers that may be out of their control. Interventions can be used to promote health behavior changes and aid in persuading or increasing awareness on a particular issue.
6). Workplace health promotion designed to improve lifestyle, and ultimately enhance health, the ability to function, and productivity (Rongen, Robroek, van Lenthe, & Burdorf, 2013, p. 406). Over the years, various theoretical models have evolved to “articulate variables involved in health behavior to predict participation and engage would be non-participants” (Galloway, 2003). Health Belief Model was one of the first theories of health behavior developed in 1950s by a group of social psychologists, who sought to explain what motivates public to participate in programs designed for wellness promotion and disease prevention (Nursing Theories, 2013). According to this model, preventative behaviors depend on the individuals’ beliefs, including their vulnerabilities to the disease, the effect of the disease on their lives, and the effect of health activities on reducing the disease severity and susceptibility (Sharafkhani, Khorsandi, Shamsi, & Ranjbaran, 2014, p.
The model which I felt most applied to our situation was the Health Belief Model (HBM). HBM was developed by Rosenstock (1966) and further by Becker and colleagues throughout the 1970’s and 1980’s. The HBM was developed to help understand why people did not use preventative services offered by public health departments in the 1950’s. It theorises that people’s beliefs about whether or not they are at risk for a disease or health problem and their perceptions of the benefits of taking action to avoid it, influenced their readiness to take action. When I applied this theory to us I realized that neither I nor my husband thought we were at risk for any serious illness at any point. We felt there was really no benefit to be derived from going to the doctor if we were not seriously ill. We felt we would have wasted several hundred dollars for no reason when we were confident we could treat each other at home. Our cue to take action was severe pain in each case. I however agree with the criticisms of this model as it focuses several conscious steps an individual’s health behaviour may take. These include susceptibility to the illness, severity of the illness and costs of carrying out the behaviour along with other steps. However, neither my husband nor I was consciously practicing this behaviour. We were influenced by our social environment and I never realised how seriously this could impact our health outcomes. Pain in the stomach is almost always thought to be gas and not a potential sign of a heart attack. The mother of a close friend actually died of heart attack after drinking tea the entire day for what she actually thought was gas. The fact that an individual’s social environment has considerable impact on an individual’s is another criticism of HBM as it ignores this factor .HBM suggests that if an individual is at high risk for a
Using the Health Belief Model, this study was to describe relationships among health care providers’ perceived susceptibility, actual risk of skin cancer, and the use of sunscreen. The idea was that If health care providers understand their own susceptibility to skin cancer, then there’s an increased chance that they will be able to influence others’ perceptions of their skin cancer susceptibility through more awareness. According to the Health Belief Model, the reason for preventive behavior could be the information received from the health care provider. It would be beneficial to explore what information health care providers share with their patients concerning skin cancer prevention, and whether it affects the patient’s decision to use
Lets make it quite clear that change doesn’t happen overnight nor is it ever a process easy. To make a proper and healthy life-style behavior change, you must be dedicated to put in the time and effort that’s necessary for accomplish any goal. When I first began to become engage in exercising and becoming more physically fit I found that the Health Belief Model and the Social Cognitive Theory demonstrated the progression that I have made throughout my change. To begin you do not need to try and follow through the steps provided in any given model or a theory, the reasoning behind that statement is that everyone is different so our stages of change will all differ from one another. For me, once I decided that I wanted to begin attending group-fitness classes I found that through the Health Belief Model I had to understand the perceived benefits of my change, I had to
The following paper will examine and address the Human Papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) uptake in regard with the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). This paper will introduce the Human Papillomavirus, the available vaccines, and the characteristics of both the HBM and TPB. The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers to the HPV vaccine uptake in young women ages 18-26 years and to determine how constructs of the HBM and TPB may or may not explain this preventative health behavior.