Advantages of No Child Left Behind
President George Bush signed the ‘No Child left behind’ law in 2002. The intent of this law is to guarantee every student, in the American school system, is offered the same opportunities. There are many benefits NCLB offers to students in America’s schools. One benefit is an effort that supports learning in the early years, thereby preventing many learning difficulties that may arise in students, later in the learning process (Department of Education, 2004). For example, the National Institute of Health estimates that 15 percent of the U.S population has some type of learning disability (Department of Education, 2002, p.74). Suppose these learning disabilities are detected earlier in school, some students may receive therapy and correct this disability. Some facts that show how important early learning is for a students development are: Children who enter school with language skills and pre-reading skills (e.g., understanding that print reads from left to right and top to bottom) are more likely to learn to read well in the early grades and succeed in later years (Department of Education, 2004). ‘NCLB’ targets resources for early childhood education so that all children begin their education with the right start. The category of Specific Learning Disability, its definition, assessment, and eligibility criteria, are currently the subject of much discussion (Department of Education, 2004.ii) Nearly 3 million school-age students are currently receiving special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) due to identified specific learning disabilities (SLD) (The Advocacy Institute, 2004). With so many children suffering from disabilities, many would believe ea...
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...ia offers information about education issues. Used for the definition of NCLB
Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia, Public Education in the United States, 2004 <http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2004 Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved November 28, 2004>
This encyclopedia article described the public education system in America and the large portion of the education system now revolves around NCLB standards.
Business week, (2 August 2004). A vote for no child left behind. Business Week. Retrieved November 28, 2004, from LexisNexis database.
This magazine article discusses the support for NCLB from business.
Roebuck, K. (19 October 2004). Time near city schools district plan. Pittsburgh Tribune Review. Retrieved November 28, 2004, from LexisNexis database.
This newspaper article discusses the ineffective results of NCLB on Pittsburgh areas schools.
Before Kirkbride's standardized methods for mental hospitals, those with mental illness suffered crude and inhuman treatment. Beginning in Colonial America society, people suffering from mental illness were referred to as lunatics. Colonists viewed lunatics as being possessed by the devil, and usually were removed from societ...
In the 1840’s, the United States started to build public insane asylums instead of placing the insane in almshouses or jail. Before this, asylums were maintained mostly by religious factions whose main goal was to purify the patient (Hartford 1). By the 1870’s, the conditions of these public insane asylums were very unhealthy due to a lack of funding. The actions of Elizabeth J. Cochrane (pen name Nellie Bly), during her book “Ten Days in a Mad-House,” significantly heightened the conditions of these mental asylums during the late 1800s.
Mental illness has been around as long as people have been. However, the movement really started in the 19th century during industrialization. The Western countries saw an immense increase in the number and size of insane asylums, during what was known as “the great confinement” or the “asylum era” (Torrey, Stieber, Ezekiel, Wolfe, Sharfstein, Noble, Flynn Criminalizing the Seriously Mentally Ill). Laws were starting to be made to pressure authorities to face the people who were deemed insane by family members and hospital administrators. Because of the overpopulation in the institutions, treatment became more impersonal and had a complex mix of mental and social-economic problems. During this time the term “psychiatry” was identified as the medical specialty for the people who had the job as asylum superintendents. These superintendents assumed managerial roles in asylums for people who were considered “alienated” from society; people with less serious conditions wer...
For many decades the mentally ill or insane have been hated, shunned, and discriminated against by the world. They have been thrown into cruel facilities, said to help cure their mental illnesses, where they were tortured, treated unfairly, and given belittling names such as retards, insane, demons, and psychos. However, reformers such as Dorothea Dix thought differently of these people and sought to help them instead. She saw the inhumanity in these facilities known as insane asylums or mental institutions, and showed the world the evil that wandered inside these asylums. Although movements have been made to improve conditions in insane asylums, and were said to help and treat the mentally ill, these brutally abusive places were full of disease and disorder, and were more like concentration camps similar to those in Europe during WWII than hospitals.
In the 1800’s people with mental illnesses were frowned upon and weren't treated like human beings. Mental illnesses were claimed to be “demonic possessions” people with mental illnesses were thrown into jail cells, chained to their beds,used for entertainment and even killed. Some were even slaves, they were starved and forced to work in cold or extremely hot weather with chains on their feet.
The human brain is a vast, unexplainable, and unpredictable organ. This is the way that many modern physicians view the mind. Imagine what physicians three hundred years ago understood about the way their patients thought. The treatment of the mentally ill in the eighteenth century was appalling. The understanding of mental illness was very small, but the animalistic treatment of patients was disgusting. William Hogarth depicts Bethlam, the largest mental illness hospital in Britain, in his 1733 painting The Madhouse1. The public’s view of mental illness was very poor and many people underestimated how mentally ill some patients were. The public and the doctors’ view on insanity was changing constantly, making it difficult to treat those who were hospitalized2. “Madhouses” became a dumping ground for people in society that could not be handled by the criminal justice system. People who refused to work, single mothers, and children who refused to follow orders were being sent to mental illness hospitals3. A lack of understanding was the main reason for the ineptness of the health system to deal with the mentally ill, but the treatment of the patients was cruel and inhumane. The British’s handling of mentally ill patients was in disarray.
Two hundred years ago, Pennsylvania revolutionized the mental health care movement. Benjamin Rush, a Philadelphia doctor made a suggestion to his fellow colleagues about individuals suffering from mental disorders. Instead of treating individuals with mental disorders as a sign of demon possession or confused soul, treat their disorder as an illness. In the late 1800's, another Philadelphia doctor caught wind of Rush's idea to treat mental illness. Thomas Kirkbride believed the insane, as they were called in nineteeth century, deserved humane treatment. After this realization, the asylum movement took place in Pennsylvania. Individuals suffering from mental disorders were taken out of their inhumane circumstances an...
The mentally ill were treated very inhumanly in the early insane asylums. Some of the treatment the patients had to undergo was extremely painful and evil. The asylums were really prisons and not centers for treatment. The inmates were chained and the rooms were dark and filthy dungeons. The patients were treated like animals, not humans (Gray).
The treatment of the mentally ill started back in the far past. In 400 BC, Hippocrates, who was a Greek physician, treated mental illness as diseases of disturbed physiology, and not displeasure of the Gods or demonic possession ("Timeline: Treatments for," ). Greek medical writers found treatments such as quiet, occupation, and the use of a drug called purgative hellebore ("Timeline: Treatments for,”). During these times, family members took care of the mentally ill ("Timeline: Treatments for,”). In the middle Ages, the Europeans let the mentally ill have their freedom, as long as they were not dangerous ("Timeline: Treatments for,”). The mentally ill were also seen as witches who were possessed by demons ("Timeline: Treatments for,”). In 1407, the first mental illness establishment was made in Valencia, Spain ("Timeline: Treatments for,”).
Mental health patients were considered innately inferior and treated as the weaker portion of the human race due to the prevailing dominant theory of Social Darwinism in the 1800s. They were put in mental asylums, where conditions had deteriorated substantially from earlier in the century. (Floyd) The public’s interest about the unsatisfactory care of the mentally ill, championed by Dorothea Dix, led to some reforms, such as higher medical standards, more oversight into asylum practices, and more research into mental health. (Floyd) Nevertheless, the status of the mentally ill did not elevate much higher, and by the 1890s the repeated failure of asylum therapy convinced most that insanity and mental illness was incorrigible. Finding no alternatives, however, patients continued to be sent to asylums to attempt to cure them as much as to isolate them from the rest of society. (Roberts) Unfortunately, people also began to fear the proliferation of the mentally ill. When sterilization became considered, unrealistic, more, cheaper asylums were built as a means of segregated them and preventing an increase in their numbers. (Roberts)
The BBC documentary, Mental: A History of the Madhouse, delves into Britain’s mental asylums and explores not only the life of the patients in these asylums, but also explains some of the treatments used on such patients (from the early 1950s to the late 1990s). The attitudes held against mental illness and those afflicted by it during the time were those of good intentions, although the vast majority of treatments and aid being carried out against the patients were anything but “good”. In 1948, mental health began to be included in the NHS (National Health Service) as an actual medical condition, this helped to bring mental disabilities under the umbrella of equality with all other medical conditions; however, asylums not only housed people
...nd the ability to create light shadows and depth in his artwork. Every masterpiece comes from somewhere; he kept journals full of sketches and drawings soon to be shown to the world. The most famous artwork during the Renaissance and cant rater to today, the Mona Lisa has brought creativity and talent to the Louvre Museum Paris. His natural genius crossed so many disciplines that he epitomized the term “Renaissance man.” He remains best known for his art, including the paintings. Among the world’s most famous and admired, Mona Lisa. Leonardo da Vinci was one the most powerful craftsmen to rise up out of the Renaissance, which was shown showed through his portrayals and drawings, he used to get ready for the manifestations of his artful culminations, the new methods the created, and the improvement of the Mona Lisa which is viewed as the best artwork ever painted.
Leonardo da Vinci, was born in 1452, in Anchiano Italy during the Age of Discovery. Vinci is a last name we associate with him from a close town where he grew up. As far as we know da Vinci has always been called “di ser Piero da Vinci”by his family and friends. Da Vinci didn’t have his birth mother, Caterina,
Leonardo was born in a small town in Tuscany, Italy called Vinci on 15 April, 1452. Back then, not all people had surnames; only those who were rich and powerful deserved one. Therefore, when people today refer to him as “Leonardo da Vinci”, “da Vinci” actually means “from Vinci” in Italian. His talent for painting was recognized by his family and neighbors when he was still a boy, and he started his painting career at a very young age. At 14, he was sent to Florence by his father to learn from Verrocchio, who owned a leading workshop at the time. It is said that when he cooperated with Verrocchio on the Baptism of Christ, his skill was so much finer than his master’s that Verrocchio quit in the middle and never painted again for his whole life. 1