Parenting And Parenting Styles

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III. Review of Related Literature
Introduction
It is important for us to know the difference between parenting practices and parenting styles. "Parenting practices are defined as specific behaviours that parents use to socialize their children"(Spera, 2005, p. 125-146), “while parenting style is the emotional climate in which parents raise their children" (Spera, 2005, p. 125-146). Diana Baumrind is a researcher who focused on the classification of parenting styles. Baumrind’s research is known as “Baumrind’s Parenting Typology”(Baumrind, 1967,pg. 43-88). Her studies identified three parenting styles mainly, Authoritarian parenting, Authoritative parenting, and permissive parenting. “Authoritative parenting is characterized by a child-centered
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“While permissive parenting or indulgent parenting is a style of parenting in which parents are very involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them” (Santrock, 2007). These parenting styles are utilized to determine how they raise their children. There are consequences on how the children behave with these different parenting styles. Like the children of authoritative parents tend to be more lively and have a happy disposition, has self-confidence in the ability to master tasks and has well-developed emotion regulation. The children of the authoritarian parents has an unhappy disposition and are rather anxious and withdrawn, do well in school but has poor reactions to frustrations and are not likely to engage in antisocial activities while the children of the permissive parents have poor emotion regulation, low persistence to challenging tasks, antisocial behaviours and become rebellious when desires are not met (Baumrind, 1966,pg. 887-907). “Mothers and fathers tend to pick up different behaviours of parenting based on the sex of their child”(Putnam & Myers, 2014). “According to Stephen (2014) Studies have shown that “fathers can affect their daughters' emotional adjustment more through the style of parenting they demonstrate rather than through…show more content…
Dornbusch et al., 1987; Lin & Fu, 1990). “The results of the present study indicated that, inconsistent with the arguments in the literature, authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were relevant to children’s academic success and social adjustment in China” (e.g. Chao, 1994; Darling & Steinberg, 1993; Ekblad, 1986; Steinberg et al., 1992; Wu, 1981). According to this study, “it was found that authoritarian parenting of both mothers and fathers was positively associated with aggression-disruption and negatively associated with peer acceptance, sociability-competence, distinguished studentship, and school achievement. It was also found that authoritative parenting style was positively related to children’s peer acceptance, social competence, and school achievement and negatively related to children’s social difficulties.” Thus, it may be safe to conclude that authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices in Chinese culture serve the functions in child rearing that are similar to those found in Western cultures (e.g. Baumrind, 1971; Maccoby & Martin, 1983). This study explains that “parental social status was positively associated with authoritative patterns and negatively associated with authoritarian parenting style”. Compared with parents who had low educational and occupational levels, “parents with a relatively high social

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