Human Nature

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Human Nature

Human nature, its essence, origin, and realization have long been controversial issues that involved ardent discussions. Nowadays there is also a plurality of theories and opinions concerning this concept. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the different theories of human nature, as well as to provide an eclectic reasoned conclusion as for what this concept constitutes, and what characteristics it comprises.

Jean-Paul Sartre views human nature as potentially free. Moreover, he asserted the idea of “nothingness” as a central concept in this discussion highlighting the multitude of possibilities. It is important to elucidate that Sartre’s “nothingness” is not a vacuum emptiness, on the contrary, the idea is indefiniteness, incompleteness, infiniteness. It means that a person constantly faces a number of choices, and reveals his/her nature, both positive and negative, in them (Kupperman, 2010:155). Though the philosopher’s theory is not associated with determinism, Sartre appears to be quite fatalistic in stating that it is impossible to escape from freedom, but at the same time what he means is that a person is completely unpredictable in his/her behavior. However, Sartre also indicates certain human preferences that often predetermine the respective choices, and thus he also asserts that human behavior can often be predictable. Still, there is a point when a person can make the so-called “existential choice”, which is made sensibly and intentionally by a person in certain circumstances. By stating this, it is clear that Sartre completely rejects the element of unconscious influence on the choices that people make. In order to understand Sartre’s view of human identity, it is reasonable to account for his asserti...

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...he need to recognize and find harmony between body, mind, and soul; the essence of human life; the definition and role of immorality and dignity, etc. in which human nature is revealed. Research in this area would be able not only to expand the boundaries of the contemporary understanding of the concept of human nature, and reveal new opportunities for the development of its constructive representations, or alteration of the destructive ones.

Works Cited

Caro, A.D. Grounding the Nietzsche Rhetoric of Earth. Walter de Gruyter, 2004.

Hobbes, T. The Treatise on Human Nature and that on Liberty and Necessity, 1812.

Kline, T.C. Virtue, Nature, and Moral Agency in the Xunzi, 2000.

Kupperman, J. Joel. Theories of Human Nature. Hackett Publishing, 2010.

Nietzsche, F.W. Human, All Too Human I: A Book for Free Spirits. Stanford University Press, 2000.
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