The term “human nature” is vague and very broad, giving many philosophers the opportunity to try and apply a meaning to it. Throughout history, theories have ranged from having complete free will as a gift from God to having no human nature at all. Two particular theories that I’d like to analyze are Sigmund Freud’s psychological view and Aristotle’s ethical view. Although both Freud and Aristotle believe that the mind plays a key role in human nature, they differ in that one believes that there is no complete rationality while the other believes that rationality is our natural function.
The nature versus nurture theory is a way to distinguish whether certain traits or characteristics of individuals are impacted more by biological means or environmental means. What the “nature” part signifies in the the theory is that we are more impacted by heredity and biological effects of our personality and what defines us as a person. What “nurture” signifies is that environmental factors have a more powerful impact on our lives and personality. As we mostly know, most things aren’t black and white, and so it’s hard ro determine which type of factors is more effective. Most people believe that it’s a blend of both nature and nurture that makes us who we are.
Leslie Stevenson and David L. Haberman’s Ten Theories of Human Nature provides an insightful introduction to important philosophical, religious and scientific theories, or ideologies, and their depiction of human nature. The book is meant to provide the reader with a guidance for how we should live, based on ten different theories. The book consisted of ten chapters, each examining a particular theory, presented in a chronological order. Throughout each chapter, historical context was first provided to the reader, followed by a definition of essential terms, a diagnosis of the ways the theory depicts human nature, then a prescription for how one ought to live, and ending with later developments and interpretations. This pattern was followed
Coined by theorist Sigmund Freud, the psychodymanic approach to therapy revolves around the interaction between the conscious and the unconscious. It is believed that the mind is made up for three entities; the Id, Ego,& Superego. The id is known for its pleasure seeking drive and impulsiveness. Often referred to as the “devil on your shoulder” the id exhibits very little self control and is often linked with the unconscious mind. Driven by sex, violence, and impulsivity, the id has been known to encourage risky behavior that normally would not occur. If the id were dominant, a person would behave in a devious, and socially unacceptable manner. Contrary to the id, the superego acts as the “angel on ones shoulder”. As stated in Day,2008, “when the superego is in charge, we are perfectionistic and uptight and demand too much of ourselves.” The superego acts as the conscience by reflecting social standards learned through observation. When the superego is allowed to take control, it sets such high expectations and demands, that is is too difficult to reach such high standards. The only way to stop the pendulum of the psyche from swinging to either extreme is the presence of the ego. The ego is the mediator between the superego and the id, providing moral reasoning and the principal of reality. The reality principle acknowledge that one must not act out id impulses, but also realizes that one cannot live up to the demands of the superego (Day, 2008). The ego helps moderate between these two extremes with the use of defense mechanisms.
Human nature is characteristics that generally apply to all people. It is our natural habits such as being impatient, wanting to be accepted, and so on. It is within human nature that peopl...
The concept of human nature has been theorized and debated repeatedly by philosophers throughout history; contrasting arguments regarding whether or not human beings are intrinsically competitive, or compassionate have been put forth by Thomas Hobbes and Peter Kropotkin. Understanding human nature is important in order to properly understand why human beings behave in the manner that they do, and whether or not all people instinctively are made to think similarly. Being equipped with this knowledge can allow for one to better understand events in history and different aspects of life, such as politics.
Wall, T. F. (2005). On Human Nature: An Introduction to Philosophy (5th ed.). Belmont, CA:
Christian counseling has benefited from the insight that psychologists have discovered about the human mind. However, it is important to note that many aspects of effective Biblical counseling differs greatly from that of its secular counterparts. This study will compare and contrast the theories of Dr. Crabb as outlined in his book, Effective Christian Counseling, and some of the theories held in popular secular counseling: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, and Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy.
To study psychotherapy or be a counselor from a theological standpoint is to have a particular, genuine interest of other people’s problems without the desire of tangible results from your work. Typically, the answer is the desire to aid those with issues parallel, or separate, to past and present obstacles. If not, then what leads to the decision of lending an empathetic ear and emotional sacrifice to those around? By researching into social and cultural context, the possibilities of the influence of personal values and challenges, and the connection of faith, it can be sought after what it means to take a step into the doorway of the helping profession and its benefits.
…distinguishing characteristics, including ways of thinking, feeling and acting, that humans tend to have naturally, independently of the influence of culture….Human nature particularly important implications are found within ethics, politics, and theology. This is partly because human nature can be regarded as both a source of norms of conduct or ways of life, as well...
Sometimes individuals consider becoming counselors after overcoming some major life challenge such as addiction or a history of bad relationships. Perhaps an individual has encountered a particularly effective counselor or therapist and has a desire to follow in those footsteps. Others may have had a bad experience with counseling and concluded that it can be done better. People do not think of this work so much as a job, or even as a career. More typically, a constellation of life experiences that demand explanation and a sense that others seek one out for assistance and emotional sustenance become driving forces leading one toward the counseling profession” (An invitation to). .
This semester in procedures of counseling class we discussed a lot of different types of counseling theories. We also did a lot of practicing with each theory with our partners. I found that person-centered therapy best fits my personal attitudes and style of counseling. I think this would be a good style of counseling for me because I can see myself better helping people as a whole than trying to fix an actual problem. I don’t think I could just focus on a client’s problem and problematic behavior, and not try to help better them as a person. This is the type of therapy that is the warm and fuzzy type. I like to think as myself as very empathic person, and always try to put myself in other people’s shoes. I try
In today's society, individual counseling is becoming more main-stream with increased usage within the school system, family unit and even the military. The role that a counselor can have on any individual varies according to the chosen theory to practice and the approach taken. However, it must be stated that the approach and success of therapy is dependent on the relationship established by the therapist (clinician) with the client. In 2010 Seligman proposed the BETA treatment system, which stands for background, emotions, thoughts, and actions. According to Seligman, all theories are either focused on a person’s background, emotions, thoughts or their actions. For this reason, we will discuss three prominent forms of individual counseling therapy used today. The three types of therapy are Adlerian Theory, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Solution Focused Brief Therapy. The following paper will seek to introduce the key concepts, therapeutic approach, and application of various techniques, or procedures for each of these practices.
A study performed in 1992, reported approximately 3,400,000 youth had failed to complete high school and were not enrolled in high school (Starr 1998). This statistic is based on the United States where job competition has greatly increased due to technology. Many of these student lacked the support and training necessary to succeed in today’s society. Currently in every high school across the nation, there is a person responsible for offering support and training to the youth of America. Available for all students is a guidance counselor. Counselors within the high school setting play an influential role in the forming of post high school goals through the planning of numerous activities.