Essay On Middle Childhood Development

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Middle childhood is the second developmental phase in the life course. This stage is typically defined in children from ages six through twelve. Like most stages, especially during childhood, there is biological, psychological and sociological development. A key skill acquired at middle childhood is the continuation of forming a sense of self through the relationships with others. During early childhood, the growing infant learns that he or she is no longer attached to their mother and they are an autonomous being. In middle childhood, the child is less influenced by their parents and family as school and community relationships form. Erik Erickson, the psychologist and psychoanalyst, identified this stage of development as the time of industry versus inferiority. The child by this age as already formed the ability to trust, especially, their caregiver during the beginning months of life. Then proceeded to complete the second stage of autonomy versus shame. In the third stage, the child forms initiative or guilt, which is the early education period. By middle childhood, these stages are mastered and there is rapid cognitive development as awareness of self and others. The concept of self also becomes impacted by the friendships and relations with their peers. Children inhabit new roles, which aids in forming the personality and provides opportunities for responsibility. It is a period of socialization and internal awareness. This is also a crucial time as children are susceptible to peer isolation, bullying, deviations in personality formation and symptoms of mental illness. Middle childhood like Eric Erickson’s understanding of the stages of development, is influenced by the previous life course stage. Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal’... ... middle of paper ... ... On the micro level, parents need to take an active role in their children’s lives and create open communication. Families may need further assistance like appropriate social policies that can remove the barriers placed on lower incomes. For the mezzo level, schools and other activity programs need a better monitoring system of peer interaction. From these articles, it is evident that social behavior is based on social goals and has a paramount effect on the individual. Those that use aggressive behavior to achieve their goals should be provided alternative solutions to release their aggression. All children’s environments should be accepting and promoting of diversity as this is a stage of differentiation and identity. Being different, whether it be ethnically, personality or mental health, should be accepted as these skills will be used throughout their live course.
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