Middle Childhood to Adolescents

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The text depicts a historical perspective on Middle Childhood, as during the twentieth century, children were viewed primarily as an economic source of income, in terms of providing for the family. According to the text this happens often in European counties and in parts of the United States. Elizabeth D. Hutchinson, Dimensions of Human Behavior The Changing Life Course 3rd, 2008. In this short review we will look at how this historical perspective in itself is not a question to how, but when these individual give. Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory labeled this period of life the latency stage, a time when sexual and aggressive urges are repressed. Freud suggested that no significant contributions to personality development were made during this period; therefore, middle childhood was not considered an important stage in human development according to Freud’s analytical theory. However, more recent theorists have recognized the importance of middle childhood for the development of cognitive skills, personality, motivation, and inter-personal relationships. Erikson's conception of middle childhood is the industry/inferiority stage were children begin to develop an attitude about themselves, develop self-esteem, internalize society's standards, and develop an evaluation of socially relevant emotions of shame and pride. Impressions of Middle Childhood: Both personal and professional experiences show Freud’s theory lacks evidence, with regards to middle childhood needs that give to their developmental growth. Middle childhood brings many changes to a child’s life. Middle childhood is the developmental phase that leads from the period before commencement of the physiological processes and changes associated with puberty ... ... middle of paper ... ...e goals, increases pride, and independence. Conclusion The life course and systems perspective provides building blocks for understanding positive development during middle childhood. As parents and social workers, we must recognize that resilience is seldom an instinctive characteristic; rather, it is a process that is facilitated by influences within the child’s surrounding. Research suggest that high-risk behaviors among children increases when children perceives declining family involvement and community supports. Therefore, the primary goal of parents and professionals is to dedicate to the child’s well-being positive internal and external supports that promote maximal protective factors, while minimizing risk factors for optimal developmental transitions. Chapter 5 of Elizabeth D. Hutchinson, Dimensions of Human Behavior The Changing Life Course 3rd, 2008.

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