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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

explanatory Essay
1337 words
1337 words
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a condition that creates a great deal of discussions among professionals. There are numerous debates that surround this disorder. There are theory’s presented from each side about what causes it, how to asses it, and how to deal with it effectively. The first question needing answered is what is ADHD? ADHD is a set of behavioral problems revolving around three main symptoms. The chief symptom that a person exhibits is the incapacity to keep their attention focus. A second key symptom is impulsiveness. They may act or shout out inappropriately and have a short fuse leading to temper tantrums. A third core symptom is hyperactivity. Sufferers are unable to sit still seeming restless or fidgety. ADHD symptoms may also cause problems in educational settings for children and also problems at work for adults. ADHD is broken into three subtypes. The first is those who are impulsive and hyperactive. The second type is made up from those who are inattentive only. The third group is those who display all of these symptoms combined. In the United States, 3-5% of children show signs of this disorder. It has also been shown that the disorder is more dominant in boys. Many children with ADHD do not outgrow this disorder and carry it on into their adult lives. Various studies have shown that two-thirds of children with ADHD still have the disorder in their 20’s making it is a problem which affects children and adults alike. One critical debate surrounding this disorder is the assessment and diagnosis of ADHD. In the DSM IV, it states that in order to accurately diagnose ADHD, the patient must show at least six symptoms. People with ADHD show various signs such as, the difficulty in sustaining attenti... ... middle of paper ... ...reatments for ADHD: A lifespan approach." Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 51.2 (2010): 116-133. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. Helmke Library, Fort Wayne IN. Ramsay, J. Russell. "CBT for Adult ADHD: Adaptations and Hypothesized Mechanisms of Change." Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 24.1 (2010): 37-45. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. Helmke Library, Fort Wayne IN. Wigal, Sharon B. "Efficacy and Safety Limitations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Pharmacotherapy in Children and Adults." CNS Drugs 23.(2009): 21-31. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 27 Mar. 2011. Helmke Library, Fort Wayne IN. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author. Academic Search Premier, EBSCO. Web. 11 Apr. 2011 Helmke Library, Fort Wayne IN.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder creates a great deal of discussions among professionals. there are theories presented from each side about what causes it, how to asses it.
  • Explains that adhd is a set of behavioral problems revolving around three main symptoms: incapacity to keep their attention focus, impulsiveness, hyperactivity, and restlessness.
  • Explains that adhd is broken into three subtypes: impulsive and hyperactive, inattentive only, and all three. in the united states, 3-5% of children show signs of adhd.
  • Explains that the dsm iv states that in order to accurately diagnose adhd, the patient must show at least six symptoms. symptoms must have been displayed prior the age of seven and must be present in both social and academic settings.
  • Explains the need for specific guidelines in diagnosing adhd because sufferers may show symptoms that stem from other issues. bright students may find their work un-stimulating and become bored, thus becoming inattentive.
  • Explains that the diagnosis of adhd offers many challenges, but determining its causes may be an even greater challenge.
  • Explains the core issue with adhd is the incapacity to remain focused on any one activity, which causes the person to be unable to finish tasks.
  • Explains that there are arguments against the theory that the disorder is neurologically based. some parents claim that their child pays attention if there is something interesting going on.
  • Argues that adhd is genetic and runs in the family. strong evidence shows that children with adhd also have parents that suffer.
  • Explains that treatment methods on how treat adhd are widely debated. some believe that mild symptoms should only be given psychological, social and educational therapy.
  • Explains that the most effective way to treat patients, is through the use of medication. stimulant and non-stimulant drugs are most commonly used.
  • Explains that adhd clinics claim to have a success rate between 80-95% and see improvement in key symptoms. however, there are short-term side effects such as headaches, loss of appetite, and sleeping difficulty.
  • Opines that there are some who fear there may be long-term problems with these drugs such as growth suppression. there have been studies refuting this theory.
  • Explains that adderall is expensive and costs on average $750 per year for on a daily dose of 30mg. the cost jumps to over $3000 with assessments and follow-ups.
  • Opines that we must be careful when dealing with adhd and must look at the symptoms and treatment methods on a case by case basis.
  • Explains that non-pharmacological treatments for adhd: a lifespan approach. ramsay, j. russell.
  • Explains the effectiveness and safety limits of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder pharmacotherapy in children and adults.
  • Explains the american psychiatric association's diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.
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