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Augustus was born in Rome, in 63 B.C. with the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus. His father, also Gaius Octavius, came from a respectable family and was governor of Macedonia before his death in 58 BC. More importantly, his mother Atia Balba Caesonia was the niece of Rome's greatest general, Julius Caesar. In 46 BC Caesar, who had no children, took his great-nephew Augustus, to fight in Hispania, and adopted him as his heir. By his adoption, he then used the name Gaius Julius Caesar. Roman tradition said that he also use the surname Octavianus to indicate his biological family, from which historians take the name Octavian. However no evidence exists that he ever used the name Octavianus.
When Julius Caesar was assassinated in March 44 BC, Octavius was with the army at Apollonian, in what is now Albania. At the time, he was only eighteen years old, and his power was always underestimated by his rivals. He gathered support by emphasizing his status as heir to Caesar and took the name Gaius Julius Caesar. In Rome, after Julius Caesars death Gaius meets with Antony in Horti Pompeii, Gaius attempted to collect his legacy from Antony, who stole Caesar's papers and fortune. After taking control over the papers and Rome he, Antony, and Lepidus each received one third of Julius Caesar's empire. Augustus received the part that was Africa. After gaining more power, he defeated Lepidus for trying to take over Sicily. He finally defeated Marc Antony at the battle of Actium in 31 B.C. That same year he received another consulship and held that position for eight years. He then disbanded his armies, and held elections. Gaius Julius Caesar was then elected to Consol, the highest office in the republic. "Julius Caesar is proclaimed a god (due to a comet that appeared at games in his honor in 44) Octavian becomes "son of a god", divi filius.
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In his later years, Augustus was more and more non social with the roman world. He started to rule from Rome and was not out on the battlefields as much as he was when he was younger. This is referred to as the "Augustan age" or the time that represents cultural excellence in much the same way as Augustus, in which the stability of Rome makes possible a high point of the arts. It is also a famous period in Latin literature history.
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