Essay about Theories Of Theories Within Nursing Practice

Essay about Theories Of Theories Within Nursing Practice

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Theories are used in nursing practice for various reasons to describe, explain, predict and prescribe. Grand theories (or conceptual models), provide a framework model for clinical practice, education, administration, methodology, and discipline inquiry, however, they cannot be applied directly to practice. As an alternative, middle-range theories are the ones that are applied directly into nursing practice and they must be consistent with the adopted conceptual model. Betty Neuman System Model (NSM), a grand theory, provides a comprehensive guide to nursing research, practice, education and administration. More so, this system model has the probability of unifying health-related theories through intervention and patient reaction to stressors. It views the patient as an open system that responds to stressors in the environment. The patient variables are physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual. The NSM has been acknowledged for its relevance and consistency and has been used in various clinical and educational settings for having a multidimensional and holistic systemic perspective (Whetsell, Gonzalez, & Moreno-Fergusson, 2013).

Betty M. Neuman developed the NSM, a comprehensive and influential theory of nursing which has impacted not only the nation, but also the world since its appearance in 1972. In 1947, she acquired registered nurse (RN) diploma from the Peoples Hospital, Akron, Ohio. She then moved and settled in California and went to work as a nurse in various fields such as hospital, school, industrial, and as a clinical instructor in critical care and communicable disease nursing. She received her bachelor’s degree with a double major in psychology and public health in 1957 from the Univ...


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...he propositions include:
1. Even though each system is unique, each is still composite of common factors and characteristics.
2. Many known, unknown and universal environmental dynamics exist.
3. Each individual or system has a typical range of response to the environment, which is referred to as Normal line of Defense.
4. When the flexible line of defense is no longer capable of protecting the client/system, the stressor breaks through the Normal line of Defense.
5. Wellness is a constant energy, supporting the system to achieve stability.
6. Line of resistance function to return the client to normal wellness state.
7. Primary prevention inhibits stress responses.
8. Secondary prevention improves wellness and lessen stress.
9. Tertiary prevention relates to the adaptive process as reconstitution begins.
10. The patient as a system is dynamic (Gonzalo, 2011).

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