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Iodide Ions and Peroxodisulphate Ions

- Investigating Rate of Reaction between Iodide ions and Peroxodisulphate ions with respect to Temperature and use of a Catalyst Introduction The aim of this experiment was to investigate the affect of the use of a catalyst and temperature on the rate of reaction while keeping all the other factors that affect the reaction rate constant. In the reaction, potassium peroxodisulphate and potassium iodide will be used to provide the peroxodisulphate ions and iodide ions respectively. The ionic formula for the reaction is as follows: S2O82- (aq) + 2I- (aq) → 2SO42- (aq) + I2 (aq) However, in order to measure the rates of reaction, sodium thiosulphate and starch are added....   [tags: temperature and Catalysts]

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Membrane Ions And The Cell

- Resting membrane potential is when the inside of the neuron is 70 mV less than the outside of the neuron when the cell is at rest. Resting membrane potential can be changed by two factors: differences in ionic composition of the intracellular and extracellular fluids and difference in permeability of ions in the plasma membrane (Marieb and Hoehn 397). Relatively, there are more sodium ions outside the cell than it is inside the cell and there are more potassium ions inside the cell than it is outside of the cell....   [tags: Cerebrum, Brain, Frontal lobe, Cerebral cortex]

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Increasing Extracellular K + Ions

- Increasing extracellular K+ reduces the net diffusion of K+ out of the neuron through the K+ leak channels because if you raise the level of the concentration gradient, then less of the K+ ions will diffuse out of the neuron, leaving us with a reduced net diffusion. When you increase the extracellular K+, that will cause the membrane potential to change to a more positive value because much less of K+ diffused out. Since K+ positive extracellular ions are found outside of the cell, and there are more of them, the membrane will be slightly more positive than before....   [tags: Action potential, Neuron, Axon]

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Questions On Ph And The Concentration Of Hydrogen Ions

- 1. Let’s talk pH (these links work anywhere) 2. What is pH. pH is a logarithmic measure of hydrogen ion concentration 3. Why is it important for living things. It is important for living things because low pH corresponds to high hydrogen ion concentration and vice versa. A substance that when added to water increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (lowers the pH) is called an acid. A substance that reduces the concentration of hydrogen ions (raises the pH) is called a base....   [tags: PH, Acid, Water, Ammonia]

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Factors That The Transport Of The Ions May Be Defective

- hypothesized that the transport of the ions may be defective in bipolar disorder, allowing neurons to fire too easily (resulting in mania) or to not fire at all (resulting in depression) (Comer 2013). While looking at the brains of people with this disorder, researchers found that the basal ganglia and cerebellum of these individuals was smaller compared to people who do not have the disorder, and they also have lower volumes of gray matter in the brain (Comer 2013). Several brain structures have also been identified has having abnormalities disrupting the function of these structures....   [tags: Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder]

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How Calcium Ions Are The Richest Mineral Of Our Bodies

- Calcium ions are the richest mineral in our bodies having many key functions during its development. Ca2+ control many cellular processes such as: metabolism, gene transcription, fertilisation, proliferation, hypertrophy, secretion, exocytosis, controls the cardiac ventricular mechanisms, controls the neuronal dopaminergic neuronal pacemaker mechanisms, spatial location, contraction, coordination and thinking (   [tags: Protein, Cell membrane, Signal transduction, Cell]

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Effect of fluoride ions on corrosion behavior of nickel

- 1. Introduction: Titanium alloys are very reactive materials and reacts instaneusely with oxygen, forming an oxide film, which give them excellent anti corrosive properties [??]. Thus, titanium alloys have proven to be the most tissue compatible inorganic materials, especially for dentistry [???]. Nickel-titanium wires, which have a near equiatomic composition, were introduced to orthodontic clinical use by Andersen and colleagues in the early 1970’s [???]. They have been highly popular in dentistry because have a much lower elastic modulus and wider elastic range than other orthodontic wires such as those composed of beta-titanium, stainless steel, and cobalt-chromium-nickel [???]....   [tags: Health, Dental Care]

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Investigation into the kinetics of the reaction between peroxodisulphate(VI) ions and iodide ions

- PLAN Introduction: After having built up knowledge about the kinetics of reactions I decided to do an investigation in this area. I was initially introduced to this particular reaction1 in EP6.4 and then in AA2.1. I was interested in using this reaction as a means of potentially supporting and quantifying some of the theories that I have studied along with also perhaps extending on them. Aim: Using a clock reaction I shall: • Investigate the effect of concentration for each reactant and use the results to find the rate equation for this particular reaction....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Concentration of Sodium Chloride Ions in a Solution

- Concentration of Sodium Chloride Ions in a Solution Prediction If I double the concentration of Sodium Chloride ions in a solution the current that can flow through the circuit will also double. Controlled Variables * Temperature: Room temperature-15ºc * Voltage: 6V * Volume of water: 200cm³ * Equipment: see diagram Diagram ======= How to make the concentration * 0.5M = 5.85g in 200cm³ * 1M = 17g in 200cm³ * 1.5M = 22.85g in 200cm³ * 2M = 34g in 200cm³ * 2.5M = 39.85g in 200cm³ Method ====== * Set up all the equipment * Switch on the circuit * Write down the first current seen * Swi...   [tags: Papers]

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Factors Affecting the Equilibrium Reaction of Iron (III) and Thiocyanate ions

- Factors Affecting the Equilibrium Reaction of Iron (III) and Thiocyanate ions Research Question How does the change in temperature of Iron (III) Thiocyanatoiron, containing iron (III) ions Fe3+ (aq) and thiocyanate ions SCN¬¬- (aq), affect the absorbance of the solution. - Temperature at 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, 40 °C, 45 °C, 50 °C, 55 °C, and 60 °C (equilibrate the Iron (III) Thiocyanatoiron (aq) in various temperatures using a digital water bath, and temperature checked using a digital thermometer connected to a data logger) - Production rate of thiocynate ion measured by the degree of change in color using a colorimeter after 600 seconds since the reactants are mixed....   [tags: Equilibrium Reaction of Iron (III)]

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How The Concentration Of Calcium Ions Is Regulated And How This Affects Cell Function

- Describe, using specific examples, how the concentration of intracellular calcium ions is regulated and how this affects cell function. Calcium is the richest mineral in our body controlling many functions such as: metabolism, gene transcription, fertilisation, proliferation, hypertrophy, secretion, exocytosis, cardiac ventricular mechanisms, neuronal dopaminergic pacemaker mechanisms, contraction, coordination and thinking, (Rubin, 2016) during the human development. These processes can occur anywhere between a few microseconds to hours to complete....   [tags: Signal transduction, Cell membrane, Protein, Cell]

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Understanding The Electrolysis Process

- What is Electrolysis. Electrolysis is a chemical change brought about by the passing of an electric current through a solution or melt. It is also used to produce alkalis and elements such as chlorine and hydrogen. The process involves the addition (oxidation) or subtraction (reduction) of ions in elements. The electric current motions the ions to proceed onto the electrodes. For example, the cations (positive ions) move to the negative electrode (cathode) and the positive electrode (anode) will receive the negative ions (anions)....   [tags: Negative Ions, Chemical Energy]

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Effect of Lead Ions On Bacterial and Fungal Amylase

- Effect of Lead Ions On Bacterial and Fungal Amylase Amylases are enzymes, which hydrolyse starch into Maltose. There are two types of amylase: Alpha amylase that degrades starch, which is a polysaccharide, into fragments 10 glucose residues long. Beta Amylase breaks these down into maltose, which is a disaccharide of two glucose molecules joined together. Both enzymes work by hydrolysis of the glycosidic link in carbohydrates. Enzyme amylase are produced from different sources but in my experiment I will be concerned with Bacterial and fungal amylase....   [tags: Papers]

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The Kinetics of the Reaction between Permanganate and Ethandioate Ions

- The Kinetics of the Reaction between Permanganate and Ethandioate Ions Filter color Colorimetory Reading, I1 (%) Colorimetory Reading, I2 (%) red 79.0 100 yellow 34.5 100 green 3.0 100 blue 34.0 100 I1 = transmittancy of KMnO4 I2 = transmittancy of water Volume of KMnO4 added to water (cm3) Colorimetory Reading, I (%) I / I0 Molarity of KMnO4 (M) 0.0 100.0 1.00 0.0 0.1 74.0 0.74 0.01×0.1 / 10.1 = 1.0×10-4 0.2 39.0 0.39 0.01×0.2 / 10.2 = 2.0×10-4 0.3 26.0 0.26 0.01×0.3 / 10.3 = 2.9×10-4 0.4 13.0 0.13 0.01×0.4 / 10.4 =...   [tags: Papers]

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The Psychrophilic Metallome

- It is predicted that the psychrophilic metallome of G. antarctica PI12 is zinc-enriched, with the preference of metal uptake decreasing in the order of Zn > Mg > Ca, Fe > Cu, Mn > Na, K, Co, Ni (Table 2). In general, all the results reported by the three approaches mentioned in this study have showed a higher preference for proteins to incorporate transition metal ions (i.e.: manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc) compared to the alkali (i.e.: sodium and potassium) and alkaline earth metal ions (i.e.: magnesium and calcium)....   [tags: metals, binding, ions]

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Investigating the Kinetics of the reaction between Iodide ions and Peroxodisulphate (VI) ions (entire plan)

- PLANNING Investigating the Kinetics of the reaction between Iodide ions and Peroxodisulphate (VI) ions By the use of an Iodine clock reaction I hope to obtain the length of time taken for Iodine ions (in potassium iodide) to react fully with Peroxodisulphate ions (in potassium Peroxodisulphate). I will do three sets of experiments changing first the concentration of iodide ions, then the concentration of Peroxodisulphate ions and finally the temperature of the solution in which the reaction is taking place....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Pruducing Electricity from Fruits

- A lot of things can produces electricity, but fruits such as citrus fruits could also produce electricity. I chose this topic because in a movie, I saw a potato clock which got me interested in fruit electricity, so I decided to produce electricity from citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are acidic fruits that can produce electricity. To get further information read on the following questions will be answered. • What makes a fruit citrus. • Why do citrus fruits produce electricity. • What is electricity....   [tags: ions, electrons, citrus, rue familiy]

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Acidification Of The Oceans : Acidification

- Acidification of the Oceans Better known as the other CO2 problem; ocean acidification, is the increase in acidity of the oceans due to vast amounts of anthropogenic carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere. An increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is resulting in an increased the amount of carbon dioxide being dissolved into the oceans. The planet’s carbon sink currently absorbs around 1/3 of the carbon dioxide released into atmosphere, that’s 22 million tons of carbon dioxide being dissolved into our oceans every day....   [tags: Carbon dioxide, Bicarbonate, PH, Carbonate]

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The Reaction Of The Cell Membrane

- Neurons primarily communicate by using chemical signals in the form of neurotransmitters, but neurons may also communicate by using electrical signaling. Neurons are able to send information via electrical signaling as a result of a quick change in the concentration of ions found on opposite sides of the cellular membrane, or action potential. This action potential is then transmitted down the axon and is received by the dendrites of another neuron. Before an action potential occurs, there is a high concentration of sodium ions outside of the cell and a low concentration of sodium ions inside of the cell....   [tags: Action potential, Neuron, Postsynaptic potential]

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The Factors that Affect the Mass of Copper

- The Factors that Affect the Mass of Copper Background Information ====================== Electrolysis is the decomposition of a molten or aqueous compound by electricity. Electrolysis occurs only in liquids called electrolytes. Electrolytes are compounds, which conduct electricity when molten or dissolved in water, but not when they are in a solid state as the oppositely charged ions are held together by strong ionic bonds in a giant lattice and this means electricity cannot pass through it and the ions are unable to move....   [tags: Papers]

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The Physics Of Plasma Science And Industry And Its Existence

- The electronegative plasma can be defined as a plasma that contains both electrons and positive ions, as well as negative ions. This type of plasma is a subject of continuing interest thanks to its importance in various fields of plasma science and industry and its existence in astrophysical, space, and laboratory experiments plasmas. The electronegative plasmas have been generated in Laboratory by many different methods a1,a2. Negative ions plasmas are found in many space observations such as (H⁺-H⁻) and (H⁺-O₂⁻) plasmas have been found in the D- and F-regions of the Earth 's ionosphere a4....   [tags: Electric charge, Ion, Electron, Plasma]

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The Art of Testing pH Levels

- This report will examine a variety of methods that can be used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, also known as its pH level. The scale used to measure acidity and alkalinity is called a pH scale, which measures the amount of H+ ions in a solution. Acids have a pH level below 7; bases have a pH level above 7. Strong acids have the lowest pH levels (0-4) and strong bases have the highest pH levels (10-14). Neutral solutions have a pH of 7 and they are neither acidic nor basic. Distilled water is neutral, because the H+ and OH- ions are balanced....   [tags: Science, informative, educational]

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The Effect Of Acids And Base On The Pigments Of Red Cabbage

- Introduction This lab experiment, explored the different levels of the ph scale by mixing red cabbage water with vinegar, ammonia, lemon juice, coffee, bleach, and baking soda. Objectives The purpose of this lab is to study the effect of acids and base (pH) on the pigment of red cabbage (anthocyanins). Food Science Principles pH is a measure of how acidic/basic water is. The range goes from 0 - 14, with 7 being neutral. pHs of less than 7 indicate acidity, whereas a pH of greater than 7 indicates a base....   [tags: Acid, PH, Base, PH indicator]

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The Effect Of Acid Concentration On The Concentration Of The Hcl

- For Hydrochloric Acid HCl (aq) + H2O (l) ↔ Cl- (aq) + H3O+ (aq) Net ionic: HCl (aq) ↔ Cl- (aq) + H+ (aq) From the experimental data, the [H+] decreases as the concentration of the HCl in each solution decreases. Since acids dissociate in water, the dilution of the acid’s concentration (Macid) will determine the number of free hydrogen ions in the solution, being that they are equal to each other when the -log is used. By changing the concentration of the HCl, the acid strength decreases, as shown in the change in pH, due to the presence of H+ ions as they break away from the original molecules of the acid....   [tags: Acid, PH, Acid dissociation constant, Hydronium]

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Investigating How the Current Affects The Mass Of Copper Collected At The Cathode

- Investigating How the Current Affects The Mass Of Copper Collected At The Cathode Aim: The aim of this investigation is to find out how current affects the amount of copper formed at the cathode, when using copper sulphate solution and graphite electrodes. Pre-test Results: For my pre-test, I have gathered the following results: Current Volume of Copper Sulphate Time Mass of cathode before Mass of cathode after 20.2 mA 50ml3 3 minutes 3.25g 3.27g 0.1A 50ml3 3 minutes 3.11g 3.12g 0.2A 40ml3 4 minutes 3.12g 3.14g 0.4A 25ml3 5 minutes 3.14g 3.17g 0.6A 50ml3 5 minut...   [tags: Papers]

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Factors Affecting The Action Potential

- The Action Potential The action potential is crucial to the lives of many organisms, and it occurs in just milliseconds. Without action potentials, none of the systems in the body can properly communicate. There are six distinct phases of an action potential, and each phase plays an important role when it comes to moving ions and current across the neuronal membrane. There are five phases of the action potential that are commonly referred to. The phases include rest, depolarization/rising, peak/overshoot, repolarization/falling, hyperpolarization/undershoot, and return to rest (Bear, Connors, and Paradiso, 2015)....   [tags: Action potential, Neuron, Axon, Nervous system]

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Profile Peculiarities in Semiconductor Etching: Origins & Techniques for Elimination

- As the dimensions of virtually every electronic device are pushed smaller and smaller, the ability to etch semiconductors with very small and very dense patterns becomes increasingly important. Increasing the pattern density naturally requires decreasing the lateral dimensions of the various structures etched. In order to maintain functionality at these sub-micron sizes, it is often necessary to etch structures with very large aspect ratios – on the order of 10-100. Dry etching using plasmas is the most efficient way to etch such structures; wet etch processes are crystal orientation dependent and it can be difficult if not impossible to obtain the desired aspect ratios....   [tags: Chemistry]

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The Sulfate And Its Effect On The Environment

- An acid is a proton-releasing compound in an aqueous solution. An acid is the counterpart of basic compounds that take in protons. They can either be strong or weak which is determined by how readily protons are released once in an aqueous solution. Acids have the effect of neutralizing bases as in the depletion of carbonate ions in the ocean. Sulfuric acid, a strong acid, is also prevalent in contributing to ocean acidification as well as nitric acid. A strong acid disassociates all of the protons readily....   [tags: Acid, Chemistry, PH, Atom]

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The Effects Of Chlorine On The Environment

- There are many chemicals and reactions occurring inside the average backyard swimming pool, one of the most important and well known chemicals are Chlorine. Chlorine is a very important part of a pools chemical makeup as it is a very good at oxidising bacteria suspended in water and keeping the pool water clear and clean. The chlorine chemical CLO is in a constant state of equilibrium that is affected by a number of factors such as temperature of the water, acidity of the water and sunlight exposure....   [tags: PH, Acid, Chemical reaction, Chlorine]

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How Water Is Related To Chemistry

- How Water Is Related To Chemistry Water is a polar solvent, its molecule is covalently bonded that makes up for an unequal sharing of the electrons resulting in partially positive and partially negative water molecule. Organic molecules like Ethane and many other molecules are non-polar, that is they neither have a positive nor a negative end. As a result, he individual molecules within the water are greatly interconnected because of the presence of weak hydrogen bonds. Water acts as a universal solvent....   [tags: Molecule, Solvent, Hydrogen]

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How the Rate of Electrolysis is Affected by Changing the Current in the Circuit

- How the Rate of Electrolysis is Affected by Changing the Current in the Circuit When chemical compounds are in a molten state, or if they are dissolved in water or other liquids their molecules become "separates into positively and negatively charged components, which have the conduct electricity", or they become ionized [IMAGE]Electrolysis is the process of breaking down or 'decomposing' a compound, by running an electric current through a chemical compound when it is ionized....   [tags: Papers]

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Covalent and Ionic Compounds

- Compounds are pure substances that contain atoms of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed ratios. In this lab, we observed two types of compounds, Ionic compounds and Covalent compounds. Ionic compounds are chemical compounds consisting of two or more ions that are held adjacent to each other by electrical attraction. “One of the ions, called an “anion,” has a negative charge, and the other is called a “cation,” and has a positive charge. “Cations” are usually metallic atoms and “anions” are either atoms of nonmetals or polyatomic ions....   [tags: chamical analysis]

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Regional Delivery of Drug via Transdermal Administration

- Regional delivery of drug via transdermal administration could be a better treatment option as this route is expected to be associated with lesser side effects due to targeting of drug to the specific site. Moreover, in case of any untoward effect due to the drug, the therapy can be terminated immediately, simply by removing the formulation/patch at any point of time. In addition, transdermal route also provides sustained release of drug and in turn prolonged therapeutic effect (2, 3). Generally, the success of topical or transdermal drug delivery relies on the ability of the drug to cross the stratum corneum barrier of the skin....   [tags: Medicine]

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The Acidification of the Ocean off California’s Coast

- The California coast is a thriving ecosystem, both beneath the sea and in the cities that line its shore. For the purposes of our discussion, we will focus on mussels as an example species. Mussels, as we speak are being harmed by ocean acidification, and the damage is becoming more and more costly to our ecosystem. Global climate change, more commonly referred to as global warming, is an important factor in ocean acidification. At its most basic, climate change is the result of previously unheard of levels of carbon dioxide entering the atmosphere and creating a greenhouse effect within the earth’s atmosphere....   [tags: Global Climate Change, Ecosystem Damage]

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Determining The Water Hardness Of Various Sources

- Daniel Marshall Chem 111 – Section 106 November 6, 2014 Room 110B Group: Natasia Morozowich and Johan Moreira TA: Saranya Pullanchery Determining the Water Hardness of Various Sources Introduction: Before water reaches the tap to go into your glass it goes through many different methods of treatment to reduce the amount of unwanted particles in order to ultimately increase the purity of the water. The water is first sent through coagulation, where chemicals such as Alum are added which bind to dirt particles in the water.1 Then it is sent into a sedimentation tank, where the heavy particles (dirt combined with the Alum) settle on the bottom and are no longer suspended.1 The water is th...   [tags: Water, Hard water, Calcium, Analytical chemistry]

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Report : Alkaline Phosphatase ( Ap )

- Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is an enzyme that can be commonly found in a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to all tissues of human body. It is concentrated in the periplasmic space, which gave rise to the name of periplasmic enzyme. The primary function of AP involves catalyzing nonspecific hydrolysis of phosphomonoester to yield alcohol and phosphate molecules (1). As denoted by its name, AP possesses optimum catalytic activities in alkaline conditions. Escherichia coli (E. coli) functions optimally in pH 8, but it may vary among different organisms....   [tags: Protein, Amino acid, Enzyme, Metabolism]

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BioChemistry - Questons an Answers

- 1. Fully explain the role of ATP in the sodium potassium pump. Sodium potassium pump is a primary active type of cell transport where in it pumps ions against the concentration gradient. In the human cell, sodium and potassium are essential ions in maintaining normal fluid volume moreover it is an important ions that maintains the function of excitable cells such as nerve and muscles cells in transmitting impulses or contracting the muscles. The mechanism is that the sodium potassium pump pumps potassium ions from outside the cells to the inside of the cell while at the same time it pumps sodium ions from inside to outside the cell....   [tags: BioChemistry, Queston/Answer]

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Electrolysis of Water and Copper

- Hypothesis “Electrolysis of water is the decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen gas due to an electric current being passed through the water.” As we know, water is a model of molecular compound, in which atoms are bounded with each other by sharing electrons. This type of bond is known as covalent bond. In order to divide the water solution into two constituents, Hydrogen H and oxygen O2, we use the method of water electrolysis. I predicted that we are going to separate water solution into hydrogen and oxygen substances by passing an electric current along them....   [tags: water, oxygen, materials, reaction]

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Mullelr and Glial Cells

- ... It was hypothesized that the endfoot has the biggest impact on the flow of ions across the membrane, and therefore the cell’s resistance and conductance. So, the resistance of the cell was once again measured, but this time with the endfoot removed from the cell. It was expected that if the endfoot of the Muller cell was the region that had the biggest impact on resistance, with the endfoot removed the resistance of the cell would increase. Scientists also decided to cut a part of the cell above the endfoot, without removing the endfoot....   [tags: Brain, Endfoot, Cells]

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Should a Water Softener Be Used in Everyone's House?

- ... Eventually, the resin beads will all be covered in magnesium and calcium ions. In this case, a brine (containing Na) will be flushed down the tank automatically, and replace the resin beads covered with minerals which make the water hard. This process is known as "Ion Exchange". Therefore, yes, a water softener should be used in houses around the community, it can save you money and improve house performance. Firstly, hard water can cause scale in your pipes which can lead to clogging of pipes....   [tags: hard water treatment, deionization]

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Use Of Electrical Signals Down The Axon And Transmission Of The Signal Across A Synapse

- Compare and contrast the propagation of electrical signals down the axon and the transmission of the signal across a synapse. The nervous system is one of the most intricate and fundamental systems within the human body. It is constructed from specialised cells called neurons (Willmer, et al., 2005). Information from a stimulus is carried by neurons as chemical and electrical signals to the central nervous system or CNS, electrical signals in particular are imperative as they carry “time-sensitive information rapidly and over a long distance” (Kandel, et al., 2000)....   [tags: Action potential, Neuron, Nervous system]

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An Experiment to Determine the Total Hardness of 4 Different Types of Bottled Water

- ... From the manufacturers’ claims, it is calculated that the average total hardness of bottled water is 29.25mg/L, in comparison to the total hardness of tap water which is 41.1mg/L, which still makes tap water harder than bottled water. In result, this meant that the hypothesis ‘bottled water will be harder than tap water as it comes from naturally occurring springs’ is incorrect as the results from the experiment prove that tap water is harder than bottled water. However, the hypothesis may still have a chance to be correct as there were many sources of error that was present in the investigation....   [tags: thank you water, evian water, tap water]

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Understanding the Way Atoms Connect Together to form Compounds

- The whole world is made up of Chemical and Physical bonds and one of the greatest advancements in history is understanding the way atoms connect together to form compounds. In chemical bonding there are two types of bonds that are called Ionic and Covalent bonds. Ionic bonds form when an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms called Ions. Covalent bonds form when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another. Atoms either share pairs of electrons between them or transfer one or more electrons from one atom to another....   [tags: compounds, chemical bonding, atoms]

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The Effect Of Cell And On The Cell

- When a neuron is not transmitting a signal, it is at rest. During resting potential, between the inside and outside of the neuron there is an ion displacement. The inside of the neuron is negative in comparison to the outside. The outside of the cell has a positive charged sodium and negatively charged chlorine, while potassium, positively charged, is more heavily charged inside the cell. This difference in the charge of sodium, chloride, and potassium maintains the dynamic equilibrium in the neuron....   [tags: Action potential, Neuron, Membrane potential]

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Softening Hard Water With Sodium Carbonate

- Softening Hard Water With Sodium Carbonate Prediction ---------- In a preliminary experiment, we discovered that adding 1g. Na2CO3 to hard water softened it slightly. We tested both tap water and distilled water with the sodium stearate and discovered that tap water was far harder than distilled water, we then tested tap water that 1g of Na2CO3 had been applied to. This solution was softer than the original tap water. The exact results were; Type of water Soap solution required 1st attempt 2nd attempt Average Distilled 0.5 0.5 0.5 Tap 4.5 5.0 4.75 Tap with 1g....   [tags: Chemisty Lab Report]

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The Science Of Matter And Energy

- I’m intrigued by your curiosity and zest when it comes on to chemistry, the science of matter and energy. I think, to some extent, that you very much remind me of my previous self, when I was around your age. Now, I am a chemical engineer, obviously, quite a number of years have passed. Oh my. Time flies. To put things in perspective, though, I general I don’t normally take breaks from my already busy schedule to write letters, explaining how processes work. However, I see that you are special, and that you have a tremendous amount of passion for the science, which I greatly admire and encourage by all means....   [tags: Chemical reaction, Hydrogen, Aluminium]

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How Does Heroin Cause Addiction?

- How Does Heroin Cause Addiction. Introduction: Heroin is an illegal class A drug that mostly comes as a powder processed form of opium. It is made using the resin of poppy plants. Opium is taken from the pod and than refined into morphine (the synthetic form of heroin) and than heroin. It is estimated that 9.2 million people around the world use heroin. Heroin is extremely addictive. Addiction is when somebody consumes a substance or undertakes an activity that is enjoyable however, after extended use, normal life becomes disrupted and possibly dangerous....   [tags: drug use, addiction, illegal]

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Acids And Bases Are Everywhere

- Introduction: Acids and bases are everywhere. From things you drink to things you wash your laundry with, that item is probably an acid or a base. An Arrhenius acid is a molecular substance that when reacted with water will produce hydrogen ions(H+) as the only cations. An Arrhenius base is another molecular substance that when reacted with water will produce hydroxide ions((OH-) as the only anions. Acids and bases have different pH ranges so it isn’t hard to differentiate them. The pH of an acid will always be less than 7....   [tags: Sodium hydroxide, Acid, Titration, Base]

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Different Concentrations Of Sodium Chloride Solutions And Its Affect On Electrical Conductivity

- Different Concentrations of Sodium Chloride Solutions and its Affect on Electrical Conductivity Introduction Electrical conductivity refers to a substances ability to carry moving electrons (conduct electricity). In order to do so, there must be a supply of delocalised electrons. While in a solid state, ionic substances can not conduct electricity as there are no delocalised electrons or free/mobile ions to act as charge carriers. In an aqueous ionic solution, the H2O molecules break apart the crystal lattice structure of the ionic substance into individual ions, surrounding each ion in a jacket of hydration....   [tags: Electron, Electric charge, Electric current]

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A Short Note On Chemical Monitoring And Management

- Chemical Monitoring and Management IRT Background Research Hunter water is the organisation that is responsible for the monitoring and management of the water supplied to the Hunter region. They have six catchment areas for the Lower Hunter and the catchment for Cessnock is the Chichester Dam which is located in the Barrington Tops National Park. Chichester Dam is in the wilderness area and is one of the most pristine water catchments in Australia. Cessnock has many rivers, dams and creeks; I took my sample of water from… Monitoring and management in the chemical industry is important to the environment and organisms living in it and from it....   [tags: Water pollution, Water, Oxygen]

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Skeletal Muscle Cells and Smooth Muscle Cells

- “Muscles are in a most intimate and peculiar sense the organs of the will. They have built all the roads, cities and machines in the world, written all the books, spoken all the words, and, in fact done everything that man has accomplished with matter.” (Hall, 1906.) The fundamental importance of muscular tissue in human beings is irrefutable as eloquently illustrated by G. Stanley Hall above. Muscle forms the largest group of tissue in the body, comprising of approximately 36% and 10% of body weight in skeletal and smooth muscle respectively....   [tags: muscular tissue, troponin, human body]

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Investigating The Mechanisms Of Carbon Dioxide Transport

- pH, which stands for potential hydrogen, is the measurement of a substances hydrogen ion concentration. Once measured on the pH scale you are able to determine if the solution is acidic, neutral or basic. Image 1: pH scale 4. Explain how blowing air into the water caused the change in pH in the water. A part of external respiration involves the movement of carbon dioxide from the blood into the alveoli of the lungs, by diffusion down the pressure gradient, and it is then expelled through breathing (Farley, Hendry, Johnstone & Mc Lafferty, 2013)....   [tags: Carbon dioxide, Blood, PH, Oxygen]

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Determining The Identity Of 4 Unknown Solutions

- To determine the identity of 4 unknown solutions, which are acids and bases left behind by a chemical company that closed, the first thing was to determine whether or not each sample was an acid or a base. This was done by taking the pH of each sample using litmus paper. The pH scale ranges from 1-14, with 7 as the middle, neutral pH. Any values over 7 are considered basic because pH is the negative logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration, as seen in the following equation. pH=-log[H+] [1] Thus, if there is a low concentration of the hydronium ion, there will be a high pH....   [tags: PH, Acid, Hydronium, Hydrogen ion]

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LC-MS and LC-MS/MS: Principles and Applications

- Introduction Mass spectrometry (MS) is a method used to analyse a sample and measure the mass-to-charge ratio thereof. It can be used to determine the mass of samples as well as the composition of the sample. Liquid chromatography (LC) or more specifically known as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a technique that makes use of chromatography to separate a mixture of complex compounds into its constituent molecules and can further be used to identify, quantify and purify these components....   [tags: Mass Spectromy, Liquid Chromatography]

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Determining the Effects of Copper Sulphate Concentration on the Germination of Broad Bean Seeds

- Determining the Effects of Copper Sulphate Concentration on the Germination of Broad Bean Seeds Index ===== Page/s ------ Aim - 1 Introduction ------------ - 1-7 Null Hypothesis - 8 Alternative Hypothesis - 8 Variables - 8 Apparatus - 9 Method ------ - 9-10 Safety - 10 Fig 8: Table Showing Number of Cress Seeds That Germinated at Different Concentrations of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) – Raw Data - 11 Calculating the Standard Deviation for Each Concentration of Cu2+ Ions (mg/l) – Raw Data - 12-16 Fig 9: Table Showing Standard Deviation of Number of C...   [tags: Papers]

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Chemical Reactions Of Chemical Kinetics

- Chemical kinetics is a branch of chemistry which refers to chemical reactions with respect to reaction rates, effect of various variables, re-arrangement of atoms, formation of intermediates and much more (Chung Chieh, 2016).The importance of chemical kinetics is that it provides evidence for the mechanisms of chemical processes and provides a very detailed description of what happens to each molecule —which bonds are broken and formed, and how the three-dimensional shapes of the chemicals changes during the course of a chemical reaction (Keith J....   [tags: Chemical kinetics, Chemical reaction, Chemistry]

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P-type ATPases

- Describe the mechanism of P-type ATPases; select one P-type ATPase and examine how its physiological role has been investigated. The P-type ATPases are a large family of membrane enzymes, with 476 different subtypes categorised in the Swiss-Prot protein information database. The P-type or E1-E2 ATPases were first discovered and categorised by Jens Christian Skou, a Danish physician-turned-physiologist in 1957. Skou discovered the Na+/K+ ATPase, and later shared half of the 1997 Nobel Prize for Chemistry in reward for his work (Skou 1997)....   [tags: Chemical Biology, Biochemistry]

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Investigating the Effect that Concentration Has on a Reaction

- Investigating the Effect that Concentration Has on a Reaction INTRODUCTION ============ Aim- to investigate the effect that concentration has on a reaction on these factors: * Temperature rise * Heat evolved * Heat given off due to the neutralization between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium hydroxide solution. Neutralization takes place when acids react with substances called bases. When they react their acidity is cancelled out, and the reaction always produces a salt and water....   [tags: Papers]

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The Rate of Electrolysis Of Copper Chloride Solution

- The Rate of Electrolysis Of Copper Chloride Solution Introduction We are going to find out what things affect the rate of Electrolysis and to find this out we will use Copper chloride salt dissolved in water to form a solution. The salt is dissolved in water becausechemical compounds when in a molten state or when dissolved in water exist in the form of ions that are capable of movement, meaning their molecules become dissociated into positively and negatively charged components, which have the property of conducting an electric current....   [tags: Papers]

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Disturbances of Acid-Base Balance

- Disturbances of Acid-Base Balance If an acid-base disturbance shifts the pH outside of the physiologic range, various control measures are activated to resist the change in pH. Compensatory mechanisms try to preserve the normal 20:1 ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid to keep the pH at normal range. The body works to maintain normal ratios through a compensation mechanism using renal and respiratory methods (Crowley, 2010). Metabolic Alkalosis Metabolic alkalosis is seen by an increase in the concentration of plasma bicarbonate relative to the concentration of carbonic acid, which shifts the pH to the alkaline side of the physiologic range (case study- pH 7.5)....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

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Understanding Acids and Bases

- Part A: Background information: Acids and bases are currently used in many various ways in our society and it is very important in daily uses. To many industries, acids and bases are a common factor as it is used to make fertilizer, cleaning supplies, or even sources of food or medicines to provide an easy life style. Acid is a substance with particular chemical properties, acids reacts with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas, acids also reacts with carbonate and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas, it has a sour taste....   [tags: Acids vs Bases]

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Utilizing Supramolecular Interactions Toward the Design of New Stimuli-Responsive Materials

- The ability to utilize supramolecular interactions1 toward the design of new stimuli-responsive materials has gained a great amount of interest in recent years.2 For example, main-chain supramolecular polymers, whose polymer backbone consists of both covalent bonds and non-covalent interactions, can result in large (e.g. mechanical) responses to small changes in the environment. 3 Reversible metal–ligand coordination is one class of non-covalent interaction that has been widely utilized to access main-chain supramolecular polymers.4 Most of these metallosupramolecular polymers rely on ligand coordination with transition metal ions....   [tags: Engineering]

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Desalination : Ion Exchange And Its Effects On The World

- Desalination: Ion Exchange Less than three percent of the total global water supply is fresh water, but how much of that is accessible. According to Ignor Shiklomanov in a paper Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World 's Fresh Water Resources, over two-thirds of the freshwater supply is held in glaciers and ice caps, nearly one-third is groundwater, leaving barely 1% of total freshwater on the surface in forms of lakes, rivers, swamps, soil moisture, atmosphere, and living things (Thomas & Gleik, 1994)....   [tags: Water, Water supply, Drinking water, Desalination]

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The Atoms, Ionic, Covalent And Metallic Chemical Bonds Are Formed

- Bonds between atoms affect outer electrons that are shared or transferred to achieve a more stable electrons arrangement as a noble gases. This essay is divided into three main sections it will first describe how the ions, ionic, covalent and metallic chemical bonds are formed. It will then go on to explain the types of bonds which can form given the position of the periodic table and the forces required to hold the molecules together. The final part of the essay will define electron pair repulsion theory and the shapes of molecules....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Ion, Chemical bonding]

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Ocean Acidification - What is Happening to Our Oceans

- Ocean acidification (OA) is defined as a reduction in ocean pH as a result of the absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide by surface waters (Hofmann et al. 2010). It is estimated that the oceans have become 30% more acidic since the beginning of the industrial revolution (Feely, 2004). • Significance of the impact of human activity and the associated change on the ocean o CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels leading to increased uptake of CO2 by oceans-affecting marine life esp. organisms that use calcium carbonate to build shells, ocean is more acidic o Moderates climate change by absorbing CO2 but reverse impact on ocean • As a result of increasing CO2, commercial fisheries are now...   [tags: fisheries, carbon, coral reefs]

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The Identification of Bacteria Through Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

- Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry, or MALDI-MS, is considered a laser-based soft ionization method. 7 MALDI allows the direct analysis of large, non-volatile and thermally unstable compounds in ionic gaseous states. 2,3,7 MALDI is modified form of laser desorption (LD) ionization. The difference between MALDI and LD is the addition of the matrix.2 A matrix is chosen based off of its ability to isolate the analyte from itself and its adsorption properties. Sample preparation consists of a solution of matrix, analyte and solvent....   [tags: sample, whole cells, experiment]

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Atoms, Ionic, Covalent And Metallic Chemical Bonds

- Bonding Bonds between atoms affect outer electrons that are shared or transferred to achieve a more stable electrons arrangement as a noble gases. This essay is divided into three main sections it will first describe how the ions, ionic, covalent and metallic chemical bonds are formed. It will then go on to explain the types of bonds which can form given the position of the periodic table and the forces required to hold the molecules together. The final part of the essay will define electron pair repulsion theory and the shapes of molecules....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Ion, Chemical bonding]

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Chemistry: What is A Complexometric Titration

- Introduction: According to (Khan): A complexometric titration as defined by IUPAC as a volumetric titration where a soluble complex can be formed by titrating a metal ion with a ligand in an aqueous solution and a titrant is one of the reacts used in the titration. [4] M(H2O)n + L = M(H2O)(n-1)L + H20 [4] (Khan): further states, here L are the Ligand and which is formed via the complete replacement of water molecules by other ligands can occur till the formation of the MLn complex. “n” is the coordination number of the metal ion and represents the maximum number of monodentate ligands which can be bound to it [8] Figure 1: The h...   [tags: metal ion, donor atom, molecules]

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The Characteristics Of Chitosan From Chitin

- Chitosan is a product obtained from chitin, which has been found in a wide range of natural resources including crustaceans [12, 21, 22] and fungi [11, 18, 23]. The production of chitosan from chitin can be performed by distinct methods[24], but the most common is the process called deacetylation[11, 23] which consists in the removal of the acetyl group and is usually performed with concentrated NaOH at high temperatures[16, 25]. The characteristics of chitosan that may affect its sorption properties should be explain in order to understand the values and limitations of the chitosan used in this experiment....   [tags: Electron, Atom, Coordination complex]

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The Study Of The Nervous System

- Neuroscience Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system. Nowadays scientists have found many understandings about the brain and the function of the brain and how the brain has developed since human were in the embryonic stage of life. However there is still so much more we can learn about the the brain like thoughts, dreams, how the brain is developed, and the simple physical actions humans do everyday. How Do Scientists Study the Nervous System. Some methods used to study the human brain without damaging the brain tissues....   [tags: Neuron, Nervous system, Action potential, Brain]

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The Nervous System

- The nervous system is one of the most intricate and fundamental systems within the human body. It is constructed from specialised cells called neurons (Willmer, et al., 2005). Information from a stimulus is carried by neurons as chemical and electrical signals to the central nervous system or CNS, electrical signals in particular are imperative as they carry “time-sensitive information rapidly and over a long distance” (Kandel, et al., 2000). A neuron has a cell body, and within it is a nucleus....   [tags: Action potential, Neuron, Nervous system, Axon]

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A Study Of Chemical Kinetics

- Chemical kinetics is the study of rates of chemical processes with respect to reaction rates, result of differing variables, re-arrangement of atoms, formation and intermediates etc (Theodore L. Brown,2010)(Chung Chieh,2016). The study of chemical kinetics is one that is a major importance in chemical research. It is powerful research tool in determining the reaction mechanism of several different reactions in chemistry(The University of Sydney,2002). Iodine clock reactions are principal examples of chemical kinetics....   [tags: Chemical kinetics, Chemical reaction]

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Why Does A Small Amount Of Sodium Leak Into The Cell?

- At resting membrane potential, why does a small amount of sodium leak into the cell instead of out. The reason for this is because there is a different charges when we come across the plasma membrane. The outside of the membrane is positive while the inside has a negative charge. Since sodium is more concentrated on the outside of the membrane and potassium is inside this can cause an imbalance of the charges. On the other hand, when there action potential starts the inside is going to be more positive and then the voltage gated channels will then opening the membrane....   [tags: Action potential, Potassium, Resting potential]

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Influence of Doping Ratio on the Structural, Magnetic, and Optical Properties of Co2+-doped CdSe Semiconductor Quantum Dots

- As shown in the experimental part, CdSe quantum dots doped with cobalt ions prepared by thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors for both Cd2+ and Co2+ ions. Different cobalt ions concentration has been mixed with the Cd-Stearate in the reaction mixture. The prepared samples using different cobalt ion concentration has been characterized via TEM and XRD in order to determine the influence of doping on the magnetic and optical properties. Structural Properties: XRD Investigation: In order to prove that doping with Co2+ ions takes place, the XRD patterns have been investigated for four samples prepared using different cobalt concentration relative to Cd2+ concentration, which represe...   [tags: cobalt, experiment, particles]

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Solubility Equilibrium Is An Equilibrium Constant For A Solid Dissolving

- Solubility Equilibrium is an equilibrium constant for a solid dissolving in an aqueous solution. When there is a solid before the equilibrium sign and dissolved products after the equilibrium sign, it is talking about the solubility product. Also, referred to as Ksp. To solve Ksp you need the concentration of the two dissolved products. The equation of Ksp is... aA(s)⇌cC(aq)+dD(aq) Ksp= [C]ᶜ[D]ᵈ As, you can see pure solids and liquids are not included in the Ksp equation because they are already accounted for in the equilibrium constant....   [tags: PH indicator, PH, Acid, Equilibrium chemistry]

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The Effects Of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide On Marine Biota

- The Effect of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide on Marine Biota The global carbon cycle is one of the most important natural cycles on Earth. It is vital to all life on Earth. One of the key components of this global cycle is the marine carbonate cycle. It is the process that controls the dissolved carbon dioxide in the oceans. The Marine Carbonate cycle is one of the fundamental mechanisms in the worlds’ oceans. It describes how carbon dioxide is dissolved, reacts and how it is stored in the oceans....   [tags: Carbon dioxide, Bicarbonate, Oxygen, Carbon]

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Skeletal Muscle Cell and a Smooth Muscle Cell

- Skeletal and smooth muscle cells show a number of similarities however they also display many differences. These similarities and differences can be seen through observing the structure and appearance of these cells, their control mechanisms and the ways in which they contract. When observing both cell types under a microscope several differences are obvious. Firstly, skeletal muscles are larger than smooth muscle cells (one muscle cell can be up to 100µm in length). They are also multinucleated whilst smooth muscle cells are uninucleate (Alberts et al, 2002: 961)....   [tags: Comparisons, Contrasts, Cells]

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Why Do Athletes Need Electrolytes For Their Muscles

- Why do Athletes Need Electrolytes for Their Muscles. Figure 1: Main Electrolytes in body fluid Source: Word Count: 988 Liana Perez MYP Chemistry Steinmetz College Prep. 2/22/16 It is commonly known that human beings need substances such as water and food so that our bodies can function properly. Also the human body needs to do certain functions everyday so that it can maintain its health. One example of how the human body can maintain its health is by exercising....   [tags: Blood, Potassium, Sodium, Electrolyte]

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Extraction by Bacteria Leaching

- Extraction by Bacteria Leaching Copper and Gold can be extracted from their ores by using bacteria leaching. A long time ago, engineers investigating the possibility of reopening the Roman workings noticed a blue-green liquid running from the mountains of excavated rock. When the fluid ran across old iron implements, it left a brown film. When scraped off, the film was pure copper. In 1947, US microbiologists discovered that the transformation was in fact the work of microorganisms....   [tags: Papers]

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Sulphuric Acid Production Should Not Be Banned

- ... AB + CD → AD + CB Acids and bases can vary in strength. Their strength is determined by the amount of ionisation when reacted with water. Strong acids & bases are 100 % ionised in water, whereas weak acids & bases are far from 100 % ionisation. There are four types of neutralisation reactions that can occur between strong & weak acids and bases. 1. Strong acid + strong base  Salt + water e.g. HNO3 + LiOH  LiNO3 + H2O In this reaction, the products are always a salt and water. The salt, in a reaction between a strong acid & a strong base, always has a pH of 7.00....   [tags: environmental issues]

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953 words | (2.7 pages) | Preview

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