The relationship that exists between gender and sex has been the root cause of global gender
movements and issues that exists in the contemporary world. The representation of masculinity
and femininity is humanly constructed and sets the stage for social expectation. Social institutions
are designed to cater for the desired gender role that is based on the foundations of traditional
social norms. Norms change over time and space and are influenced by the cultural and social
environment and movements. The theory of gender and its relation to sex, power, femininity and
masculinity are detailed first followed by two case studies that prove gender inequality and gender
construction in an organized context.
The concept of gender refers to the assigned roles that are compatible to an individual’s biological
sex. They comprise of full filling the ideologies and attitudes that are demonstrated by a male or
female. It is the “genetic characteristics that make a child biologically a girl also contribute
significantly to making her feminine and boys are given their masculine traits” (O’Sullivan, p4).
In emphasizing the gender theory it has evolved into a social phenomenon “gender is what we
think of as normally masculine or feminine” (O’Sullivan, p4).
The theory of sex,is determined by the biological formation of a human being, the word sex refers
“to the collection of biological features that result in female and male” (O’Sullivan, p2). The cultural
and social interactions often impact the representation of sex by way of allowing this concept to
create gender roles.
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4. McGennisken ,J–(2002) “The basic of the bargain” – some key issues for women
5. Cooper, C, (25/03/2009), “Women still do majority of housework: report”, ABC Online: http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/03/25/2525756.htm
6. Wearing, B, (1996), “The Pain and Pleasure of Difference”
7. M, Alveson “(2004)Masculinities and Femininities in an Advertising Agency”-
8. Gilmartin, C, Hesse-Biber, S, Lyndenberg R (1999), “Feminist approaches to theory and methodology”, New York: Oxford University Press
9. Adams,C and Laurikietis R – (1977)“The Gender Trap”: A closer look at sex roles
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