Essay Factors Affecting The Enzyme Of Proteins

Essay Factors Affecting The Enzyme Of Proteins

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Enzymes are organic catalysts, made of globular proteins. They speed up the rate of biochemical reactions, without altering the products formed or being chemically altered and are not used up in a reaction. Many enzymes require the presence of an additional molecule known as a non-protein cofactor. These include metal ions such as zinc and copper. Some cofactors are small organic molecules called coenzymes. The B-group vitamins Thiamine and Riboflavin are precursors of coenzymes.

Due to their protein nature, enzymes are highly sensitive and operate most effectively at their optimum temperature, pH, ion concentration, and in the absence of specific competitive and non-competitive inhibitors. Changes in its immediate environment can lead to an enzyme’s structure being altered, potentially leading to the protein being denatured. This results in the loss of the overall three-dimensional shape and changes the shape of the active site, preventing the enzyme from functioning.

Enzymes are produced by cells during protein synthesis and catalyse reactions inside the cell, known as intracellular enzymes and outside the cell, known as extracellular enzymes.
A common intracellular enzyme in both animals and plants is catalase, which speeds up the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic by-product found in cells that is disruptive to cell activity. When hydrogen peroxide comes into contact with the enzyme catalase, it breaks down into water and oxygen.

Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy need to kick start a reaction. They do this with the use of the induced fit model in which the substrate binds to the active site of an enzyme. The enzyme undergoes a conformational change in which an induced fit occurs betwe...

... middle of paper ...

... cylinder with pigs liver enzymes.
The independent variable of this experiment is the temperature the reaction is taking place in.
The dependent variable of this experiment is the rate of foam production in mL/sec.
The hypothesis being tested in this experiment is the optimum rate of reaction of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, catalysed by Catalase will be reached at a temperature of 40°C.
Certain factors were kept constant in this investigation to ensure the results could be attributed to only the independent variable. These include: the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (6%), the size and type of enzyme sample (1cmᵌ, Pigs liver), the pH levels the experiment takes place in, the length of time the H₂O₂ and pigs liver(enzymes) are left to get to the appropriate temperature (5 minutes) and the length of time allowed for the foam to be produced (30 seconds).

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