When Fascism is mentioned it is usually in reference to certain regimes in countries like Italy, Germany, Spain and Indonesia; with Italy and Germany being the most notable. This essay will explain the ideology of Fascism as it pertains to both countries and discuss the similarities and differences between Italian Fascism focusing on Benito Mussolini’s reign and fascism in Germany, specifically Adolf Hitler’s National Socialism, also known as Nazism. The Fascist ideology first developed in Italy in association with the National Fascist Party, which was led by Benito Mussolini for twenty-one years starting in 1922 (Kallis, 2000). The primary source of Italian fascism was a strong sense of Italian nationalism and the goal of expanding italian territories which was essential to achieving the nation’s goal of establishing itself as a world power (Lazzaro, 2005). Mussolini’s fasc... ... middle of paper ... ...ca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press, 2005.
Mussolini eventually became unemployed due to his support of Italian intervention in World War I. After the war had ended, Benito Mussolini established a group of veterans known as Fasci di Combattimento which can mean “Union for Struggle”, “Union of Combat”, or “Fighting League”. In 1922, Mussolini commanded what he called the “March on Rome”. He ordered that thousands of Fascists to seize control of Rome. King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy appointed Mussolini to be prime minister before the march could take place.
Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1997. Imlay, Talbot C. Facing the Second World War. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 2003. Mallett, Robert. Mussolini and the Origins of the Second World War, 1933-1940.
Before 1860 Italy was a collection of independent states controlled by other European powers or the rich noble families of the region. After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, the Congress of Vienna split Italy into eight independent states with major influences from the surrounding powers of Spain, France and especially Austria. Uprisings against the state governments swept the country, but were suppressed by the Habsbergs1 in Northern Italy. This however, was soon to change. Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camilo Benso Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi organized and inspired the people of Italy to unite and support a solid constitution which was not only key to unification but gave long term stability to Italy.
The Socialists did splendidly, but Fascism, having not yet fully identified with the conservative Right, seemed in 1919 to have arrived at a dead end" (Forman 27). The fear that was created between government official and citizen was what kept Fascism in power after this initial downfall. Many of the Fascists in power were out of control; Even Benito Mussolini had his own Fascist propaganda army: the Blackshirts , or "Squadre". Fear was building as ... ... middle of paper ... ...ter Fascism's decline Italy embarked on a long rebuilding journey. No matter how hard Italy tries to forget Fascism, it will always leave an everlasting mark on society there, and it will go down in history as the most infamous system of government to ever be conceived.
Italy, before its process of revolution began, was mostly ruled by foreign powers and absolute monarchs. The country’s citizens decided they wanted a change in their government and freedom from the many rulers they experienced. In the beginning, the revolt was not organized and resulted in failure until they united and fought as one large group. With the help of some historical revolutionaries such as Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour and the combination of multiple independence wars, Italy finally saw a reconstruction of its government and a unification of the nation. According to John Grooch, William Ewart Gladstone described Italy’s fight for unification as “among the greatest marvels of our time”.
140-141  C. Grove Haines “The Origins and Background of the Second World War” Oxford University Press, 1947, pg. 35  Ronald J. Rychlak “Hitler The War and The Pope” Gensis Press Inc. 2000, pg. 7 Bibliography Baumont, Maurice. The Origins of the Second World War Yale University Ltd. 1978 Bond, Brian. War and Society in Europe 1870 – 1970.
With the fall of the Empire after the death of Theodosius, Italy was then attack from neighboring civilizations in the north and west. These invasions soon lead to the rising of power in individual city-states (Defusco). The citizens of the cities abolished the ideas of feudalism and searched for their own identity. Their searching lead to violent acts amongst themselves in determining who should govern, but despite the fighting, each city contributed greatly to the economy and helped to raise the cultural energy of Rome (Defusco). By the year 1861, a unified Italy was... ... middle of paper ... ...e the beginning of its unification, Italy has battled with the differences of the north and south.
Benito Mussolini was able to capitalize on the state the country found itself in. Mussolini and his fascist ideals were able to overthrow Italy and turn it into a dictatorship and lead it into the second World War behind Hitler’s Germany. Mussolini was able to successfully turn Italy into a dictatorship under a fascist regime because of the country’s internally divided war-torn society as well as the weak state of Italy’s minority governments which could not unite to oppose fascism and finally because of his ability to appeal to this country through a false sense of security and nationalism. In the troubled postwar period Mussolini organized his followers in the Fasci di combattimento, which advocated aggressive nationalism as well as violently opposed the communists and socialists. Amid strikes, social unrest, and parliamentary breakdown, Mussolini preached forcible restoration of order and practised terrorism with armed groups.