Italian Fascism became an extremely important phenomenon under the reign of Benito Mussolini during the Second World War. With a run of 22 years, Fascism and its creator became the focal point of Europe during this time. Many Italian citizens, as well as critics believed that Fascism could be a third option, or the in between of Capitalism and Communism, two ideals that Mussolini refused to accept. With the Allies landing on the shores of Italy in their advance to Fascist capital, Mussolini fought for his ideals while the Allies aimed to liberate the country and the citizens who did not follow Mussolini’s government. Why did Italy change from a fascist government to a new government in the siege of Italy during WWII between 1943-45?
Italy, before its process of revolution began, was mostly ruled by foreign powers and absolute monarchs. The country’s citizens decided they wanted a change in their government and freedom from the many rulers they experienced. In the beginning, the revolt was not organized and resulted in failure until they united and fought as one large group. With the help of some historical revolutionaries such as Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour and the combination of multiple independence wars, Italy finally saw a reconstruction of its government and a unification of the nation. According to John Grooch, William Ewart Gladstone described Italy’s fight for unification as “among the greatest marvels of our time”.
World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2006. p. 542. Olsen, Jonathan. Nature and Nationalism: Right-wing Ecology and the Politics of Identity in Contemporary Germany. New York, New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. p. 62.
What resulted was a theory that was ahead of its time and remained so for centuries. Machiavelli's Italy was caught in the middle of a conflict between France and Spain over control of Naples. When King Charles VIII of France set out, around the 1490's, to claim the southern Italian Kingdom, he found assistance, not resistance, from Lodovico Sforza, then Duke of Milan. The leader in Florence, Piero Medici, set out to confront the French invasion, but upon realization of the might of his opposition, he "panicked [and] rode out to meet Charles and presented him with keys to…the important fortresses in Florentine territory" (Muhlberger 1). With such leadership, it is no surprise that Italy was nothing more than a collection of weak city-states.
King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy appointed Mussolini to be prime minister before the march could take place. However, Mussolini did not officially become dictator until the year 1925. He had previously compromised with parliament until he declared himself dictator of Italy in January of 1925. Mussolini’s doctrine of Fascism is a spiritual concept that emphasizes the importance of man using all his energy and being aware of all his problems. It also describes that man can form and mold his own world through his free will.
With the fall of the Empire after the death of Theodosius, Italy was then attack from neighboring civilizations in the north and west. These invasions soon lead to the rising of power in individual city-states (Defusco). The citizens of the cities abolished the ideas of feudalism and searched for their own identity. Their searching lead to violent acts amongst themselves in determining who should govern, but despite the fighting, each city contributed greatly to the economy and helped to raise the cultural energy of Rome (Defusco). By the year 1861, a unified Italy was... ... middle of paper ... ...e the beginning of its unification, Italy has battled with the differences of the north and south.
This outraged Mussolini, who had already gotten a group of followers. Together, they took over the national transportation system. Benito Mussolini gained power in Italy in 1922. Once he had power, he put on a demonstration with his followers, which got him invited by the king to form a new government. With this encouragement, he created a fascist, anti-democratic government in Italy.
Sources Cited Duiker, William J. Spielvogel, Jackson J. World History: Seventh Edition. Boston, M.A. 2013. Italian Fascisms from Pareto to Gentile as in Duiker and Spielvogel.
There were many factors that contributed to the Italian diaspora between 1861 and 1920. Perhaps the most influential factors were created by the results of the unification of Italy. On March 17, 1861, the unification of Italy was officially announced. Except for Venetia and Rome, Italy became one country under the royal family of Piedmont-Sardinia (ISSUES RELEVANT TO U.S. FOREIGN DIPLOMACY: UNIFICATION OF ITALIAN STATES). Under the new unified Italy, the courts distributed land that was controlled by feudal landowners to the locals.
Morreale, Laura K. “French Literature, Florentine Politics, and Vernacular Historical Writing, 1270-1348.” Speculum 85, no. 4 (2010): 868-893. Najemy, John M. Italy in the Age of the Renaissance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Piper, David.