From the eighteenth century through the early twentieth century, China and Japan had similar views regarding Western penetration, yet both countries responded in different ways. By subverting colonial powers, both countries had to adjust their traditional cultures, economy, and political structures in order keep up with westernization. In the past, China was always hesitant to foreign occupation and wanted to keep them out as much as possible. During the Qing dynasty, trade was greatly discouraged. China did not keep up with industrialization as much as the Europeans because they believed that their country was already prosperous and productive with its large labor force that produced everything they needed.
The fifth provision which stated, “Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of imperial rule,” is perhaps the most important because it officially opened Japan to the world. It encouraged the modernisation of the country by encouraging the Japanese people to study the Western world and adopt their social, political and economic systems to Japan if possible. The new leaders also thought that a constitutional government would put Japan on par with the Western powers. Thus, the Meiji Constitution, modelled on the Prusso-German model, was created in 1889. The Constitution established the Emperor as the sovereign, developed a bicameral... ... middle of paper ... ...d the growing businesses and industries.
Russia got Port Arthur, Britain got the New Territories near the Hong Kong region, Germany got Shantung and America got nothing. America was focusing largely on Guam and the Philippines and had missed the opportunity and so insisted on the “open-door policy'; in China were commercial opportunities were equally available to all Western powers and the political and territorial integrity of China stayed intact. The imperial court responded to this foreign threat by giving aid to various secret societies. Traditionally, secret societies had been formed in opposition to imperial government; as such, they were certainly a threat to the Ch’ing government. However, anti-foreign sentiment had risen so greatly in China that the Empress Dowager ,ruler of China, believed that the secret societies could be the leaders in a military deportation of Europeans.
In the middle of the 19th century, despite a few similarities between the initial responses of China and Japan to the West, they later diverged; which ultimately affected and influenced the modernizing development of both countries. At first, both of the Asian nations rejected the ideas which the West had brought upon them, and therefore went through a time period of self-imposed isolation. However, the demands that were soon set by Western imperialism forced them, though in different ways, to reconsider. And, by the end of the 19th century both China and Japan had introduced ‘westernizing’ reforms. China’s aim was to use modern means to retain and preserve their traditional Confucian culture.
The empero... ... middle of paper ... ... you avoid their turning to piracy?” The Chinese merchants grew in wealth and power as they gained profits from the foreigners (Document ). Ming China used a tribute system as a basis for trade and to restrict access of foreign traders in the Chinese markets, particularly by limiting them to specified ports under the control of the central government (Document 9). However, despite the prosperity and growth of the Chinese empire under the rule of the Hongwu it declined with corruption and enuchs who pursued their own selfish ends (Document 10). Furthermore, the Chinese military could not defend their borders from the Japanese pirate attacks shown in Document 2. In summary, the Chinese attempted to extend their boundaries and gain profits from foreign trade but corruption in the government and Japanese sea pirates contributed to the empire’s decline.
Before the trade of Opium started, Britain was trading silver for silk and tea; although, after a while England had no more silver to give to China. In order to stay close with the main empire and be seen as an equivalent trading partner, England traded Opium which was grown in the Indian subcontinent and then shipped to China. The trade of Opium escalated the violent confrontation between China and Britain, which resulted in short term as well as long lasting effects. After receiving the drug for a while, China’s government and society started to revolve around the effects following the addiction. The drug’s effects hit most of China, including the government and all of society.
When the United States and European countries were compelling Japan to open its ports to the world in the 1850s, Japan decided to use the West as a model for their own benefit. When the emperor was restored to power, Japan modernized, militarized, and industrialized. These changes were all based on examples set by the West. By the early 1900s, Japan became an imperial power and it spread its supremacy throughout East Asia. Japan showed that they were just as capable as the West was and they disproved the Western myth, by showing them that they were their equals.
)” (172). In order to keep its power, China needed to make people quite the smoking habit. Chinese’s attitude towards the foreigners is one reason which caused the Opium War. The middle kingdom China did not realize their over-confidence made them step into a dangerous trap. There was a demand for Chinese tea from ... ... middle of paper ... ... families suffered, but also showed Qing Dynasty’s decline point in the history.
Many officials ended up being bribed into not reporting the bootleggers, which did not reduce the crime at all. The second reason for the failure of prohibition was that gangs and criminals moved into the bootleg business, and were making so much money that they were feared and would also bribe the authorities, judges and officials to co-operate with them. The gangsters caused massacres and the St Valentines Massacre was a turning point for prohibition. People started to realise the dramatic failure of the law, and so when the Wall Street crash and the depression hit the USA in the early 1930s' it was obvious that legalising alcohol would create jobs helping people out of the depression. With all these problems, people were still getting drunk, so even with the law drunkenness hardly decreased.
During trade, there was an imbalance in China’s favor, because the Europeans were forced to buy Chinese goods using silver. The Western Imperialists began to grow opium poppies from in India, and then smuggle them into China. China soon became addicted to the drug and spent most of it’s money on the purchase of it from the Europeans and Americans. This shifted the balance of power to be in Europe’s favor. In the early 1800’s, Japan had blocked off all trade from other countries.