A polymer is a large molecule consisting of many smaller subunits known as monomers. There are different types of polymers and many uses for all of them. Even though people may not realize it polymers play an essential role in our everyday life. For polymers range from plastics, PVC, and Styrofoam to key structures in the human body like DNA and proteins which are key components to the human body that makes it possible for each of us to live and be unique. So with out polymers in our body we would be dead, and with out them in our society it would be a drastically changed for the worse to say the least
Polymers are also commonly referred to as plastics so now you can put in to perspective how much we use polymers. You can also realize how damaged and different our world would be with out polymers. Polymers such as plastics have changed the way we do things in our society for the better. With the use of polymers scientist were able to create an effective and cost efficient substitute for metals and ivory, which we used to use for making common items such as handles, pool balls, and game pieces. They were all made of ivory and since ivory is very rare and hard to obtain it raises the prices of all items made of this material. With out plastics plates, cups and silverware would still be being made of metals or other expensive material. But eventually people started replacing these things with plastic. Which is easier to make and cheaper to buy. Over all plastic has countless uses and is currently used to make many objects with out it a lot of items would not be able to be mass produced and would not be affordable to the majority of the people.
To manufacture a man made polymer there are a few natural resources that are required to...
... middle of paper ...
...n they are not going to be advanced very soon if ever. For even though it is a very useful thing it is also very basic technology used mostly for uncomplicated things.
In conclusion to this I believe there would not be to many people out there who would argue polymers are non-essential after knowing and understanding the contributions they have made to this world. For they have now for many years been good durable material that has a plethora of good uses and with out them our world would be incredibly different. They are inexpensive to manufacture and easy to recycle which not only benefits us but our environment as well. Even though the futures in polymers and plastics technology do not look like it will advance they are still great for making good durable items. With all of this being said polymers over all are and always will be a top contributor to this world.
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
The rattling commencement of plastic was appointed by Aleksander Parkes He presented a material called Parkesine ,which was both named after him and an non- synthetic material derived from cellulose ,which when heated could be molded and wrought, and after cooling the substance sustain the shape it was primitively wrought into. As time advanced plastic had become more in demand and is now one of the most common materials of our time. In terms of quantity us humans are using twenty times more plastic today than fifty years ago.
Synthetic plastics are used widely in food packaging, detergents, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and other chemicals’ packaging. Almost 30% of the synthetic plastics are used for packaging applications in the world and this rate is expanding at 12% per annum. They have replaced traditionally used papers and cellulose products for packaging purposes because of owing better physical and chemical properties. Polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(butylene terephthalate) and nylon are most commonly used plastics. Plastics possess not only suitable thermal and mechanical properties but also better stability and durability. Plastics have attractive more public and media attention because of its durability and visibility in a litter as compared to other solid components. In 1993, total world consumption of this material was 107 million tons and it reached to 146 million tons in
Today’s unprecedented technological advancement has accelerated the pace at which everyone is living. Time becomes a limited resource that every person tries to make the most use of. Therefore, convenience is the major quality highly valued in today’s world. Plastics strongly demonstrate such quality; plastics are light-weighted and disposable. Consequently, the use of plastics is prevalent, from simple objects, such as bags and bottles, to more complex components, such as computer boards. The benefits of plastics are countless; for instance, plastics are disposable and waterproof. However, many critics have raised questions regarding the threats posed by phenomenal plastics. What are the downsides of plastics? How should we cope with the plastic pollution around the globe? Susan Beraza has the answers to
Fat is not a polymer they are mold that must be digested and release out of your body.
Recycling is the process by which a waste material is converted again into reusable process and disposal is a process by which we get rid of something. Polymers are not very reactive so this property makes them very useable for storing food but this property makes it difficult to recycle or dispose of polymer. This difficulty in recycling and disposing of polymer is a major cause of environment hazard. Since the waste of polymer is increasing day by day so proper measurement should be taken to reduce the use of polymer and different method should be made to properly dispose and recycle waste. Following are the process by which a polymer is recycled or disposed.
Plastic, like most inventions, was accidentally invented. Charles Goodyear was a perfect example of how things accidently started. He started the process of making plastic by dropping India-rubber mixed with sulfur on a hot stove. The in the late 1930s, chemist Wallace Carruthers invented nylon, which is a synthetic polymer. Polymers have a high melting and boiling point. Synthetic polymers are also known by the word we use today, plastic. The evolution of plastic started during World War II. Ever since then, plastic has been remolded and created to be used for our convenience in our everyday lives. For example, using a plastic cup or plate is more convenient than using a glass cup or bowl. People encounter many different types of plastic each day and may not be aware of it. In fact, during the first two hours of a typical morning, a female college student might encounter the following products which contain plastics: her alarm clock, mirror frame, the tape used to hang her posters, the toilet seat, the shower curtains, her deodorant, her toothbrush, her shampoo and conditioner bottles, her blow dryer, the light switch, bottled water, her refrigerator, a bread bag, her roommate's glasses, her fan, and phone.
It seems hard to believe that before 1869, there was no such thing as plastic. The first plastic, celluloid, was invented in 1869 by John Wesley Hyatt, (Meikle 5). A $10,000 prize had been offered to anyone who invented a material that could replace ivory for making billiard balls. In his experiments, Hyatt dissolved nitrocellulose and camphor in alcohol. This produced a solid, white material that could be pressed into blocks. The celluloid blocks could then be cut and ground into billiard balls. Mr. Hyatt won the prize and patented his invention (10, 11). For more that 40 years afterward, Hyatt’s celluloid was the only kind of plastic.
According to the American Council of Chemistry, plastics, which are otherwise known as polymers, are comprised of carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and other elements that are combined through the conversion of natural products like oil, natural gas, or coal (ACA, n.d.). Between 7 and 8 % of the oil and natural gasses produced annually are used either directly in the conversion of such fossil fuels to plastics, or in powering the processes to produce plastics (Hopewell, Dvorak & Kosior, 2009). Plastic combinations can either form as thermoplastics, which are plastics whose atoms are connected in long chains that can be melted and reused, or thermosets, which are plastics whose atoms are arranged in three dimensional patterns that cannot be melted or reused (ACC, n.d.). Plastics are used in a wide range of products. For example, polyesters are used in textiles and fabrics, polyvinylidene chlorides are used for food packaging, polycarbonates are used for glasses and disks, and more. By the United States energy averages of 2015, each kg of plastic produced requires 62-108 mega joules of energy. The plastic requiring the largest amount of energy per kg is silicon which required about 235 mega joules of energy per kg. Three hundred and twenty two million metric tons of plastic produced in 2015 alone, and that value continues to raise, (Global plastic production,
The synthesis of polymers starts with ethylene, (or ethene). Ethylene is obtained as a by-product of petrol refining from crude oil or by dehydration of ethanol. Ethylene molecules compose of two methylene units (CH2) linked together by a double carbon
There are two types of synthetic polymers which are called condensation and addition polymers. The condensation polymers result when there is a reaction between two poly functional molecules which gets rid off a small molecule. For example, the polyester Dacron is a synthetic condensation polymer. Addition polymers on the other hand are formed in a domino effect including monomers with double bonds. Once the polymers are formed they tend to take on a linear shape or a star/comb like shape and then they are classified as linear and branched polymers. There are four major biological macromolecules which are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are sugar molecules that are made from C, H and O in a 1:2:1 ratio. Monosaccharides and disaccharides are carbohydrates divided into simple sugars while polysaccharides are carbohydrates that are divided into complex sugars such as starch. Lipids are substances like fat and phospholipids are important components of all living creatures. They are hydrophobic and thus it is difficult to break down to form energy. Biological polymers are made of amino acids, nucleotides and sugars. A significant biological polymer
With up to 150 million tons of plastic being consumed each year since the 1950s, it is clear that this polymer plays a critical role in everyday life (Icpeenvis.nic.in, 2011). A polymer is a substance made from identical monomers (molecules) joined together to form one large molecule (Smith et al., 2006). Plastic is often made from petrochemicals, with thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers being the two forms (Helmenstine, 2016). These are found ubiquitously, from packaging to health care. However, with the production and disposal of plastic at an all-time high, this can have devastating environmental effects. For this reason, a versatile plastic which is biodegradable, and produced from sustainable
Polymer-Polyethylene is partially crystalline as well as amorphous because it has crystalline and amorphous regions. Also it has linear chains so this is the simplest structure compared to a branched or network chain. This can be of an advantage to it over other types of materials as its good toughness and elongation makes it very significant in the engineering industry as it can be moulded or extruded into shape...
Plastic is everywhere. “A simple definition could be: any of a group of synthetic or natural organic materials that may be shaped when soft and then hardened, including many types of resins, resinoids, polymers, cellulose derivatives, casein materials, and proteins: used in place of other materials, as glass, wood, and metals, in construction and decoration, for making many articles, as coatings, and, drawn into filaments, for weaving.” (plastic-pollution.org, 2016)
Polyethylene is a polymer that is made of a long chain of CH2 monomers bonded together. It is one of the most commonly used polymers in everyday items. Grocery bags, soap bottles, children’s toys, and even bullet proof vests are all made from polyethylene.2 This polymer is very versatile and can be used in many materials but this all depends on the way that the polymer is chemically made or enhanced. There are many different types of polyethylene classified by density and branching. 2