The Gunpowder Empire Dbq

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Question #1
During the 16th and 17th century, the Middle East saw the rise of the “Gunpowder Dynasties”. This included the Ottoman Empire, the Safavids of Persia, and the Mughals. Simply put, these civilizations were the first in the Mediterranean to use gunpowder weapons including guns and cannons. However, it did not stop there, with the use of gunpowder came the rise of new technologies in metallurgy, mining, and weapon design. The use of gunpowder had arrived in the Middle East due to the Mongols who first witnessed its use in China. The only other empires which used gunpowder at the time were Britain and the Netherlands. The use of gunpowder allowed the three empires of the Muslim world to achieve things they previously could not and led to many advances and dominance in the region. At the same time however, it also fragmented the Mediterranean. As well, contrary to what some may assume, all of the gunpowder empires were not Arab, they consisted of newcomers to the Middle East. With all this in mind, an examination of the similarities and differences between the empires and the difference they made in the Muslim world for centuries to come is vital.
With the development of the Gunpowder Empires came the development of improvements in mining, metallurgy, and technology. As well, the use of guns and cannons allowed the empires to create and supply a strong standing army. These developments allowed for improvement and centralization of bureaucracy in all empires. However, this is the end of similarities between the empires. The most successful empire in utilizing gunpowder was the Ottomans; mainly due to two consecutive leaders, Selim the Inexorable (r. 1512-20) and Suleyman the Magnificent (r. 1520-66). The Ottomans differed...

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...uptcy which forced the establishment of the Ottoman Public Debt Administration in 1881. This administration would later become the framework of the International Monetary Fund still existing today.
The failure of defensive development in Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, and Persia had a large and long-lasting effect on the Muslim world. The original goal of the reforms was to end European intervention, revive the weakening empires, and to be on equal standing with Europe. Yet, all three empires over-utilized the wealth and knowledge of Europe, leading to their ultimate demise. The empires wished to impose reforms in the military, economics, education, and law which the region had not experienced previously. This resulted in backlash, violence, and division within the empires eventually leading to bankruptcy, ironically, to those which they wished to separate themselves.
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