The Analysis of the Intelligence of Individuals and Groups

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The Analysis of the Intelligence of Individuals and Groups Much controversy surrounds the subject of intelligence. Intelligence tests were developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century to assess the intelligence of individuals and groups. However, criticisms quickly arose regarding tests due to results being used to justify discrimination between different groups and cultures. Theorists argued that the tests assess verbal, mathematical, and spatial capabilities, but they do not directly examine other abilities that seem to be inherent parts of intelligence: creativity, social understanding, knowledge of one’s own strengths and weaknesses and so on. This perspective led Howard Gardner to formulate his theory of Multiple Intelligence. This essay will begin with a background of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory and critique it. Howard Gardner proposed that people have several kinds of intelligences that are independent of one another, each operating as a separate system in the brain according to its rules. The original seven of his proposed ‘intelligences’ were linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthentic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal. There are many proponents of this theory, such as school teachers, children educators and physiotherapists. Perhaps the greatest utility of this theory is that it offers teachers a certain perspective into the different manner in which learners may absorb knowledge. The logical progression of this insight is that teachers should adjust their teaching styles so that it appeal to the maximum number of students ensuring thereby a more rapid understand... ... middle of paper ... Wild, B., Rodden, F. A., Grodd, W., & Ruch, W. (2003). Neural correlates of laughter and humor. Brain, 26, 2121-2138; Gabrieli, J. D. E. (1998). Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 87 – 115, Cited from McGhee, P. E. (1971). Development of the humor response: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 328-348; Rovee-Collier, C (1999). The development of infant memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 80-85, Cited from, Website Visited 12-05-05 Gardner, H (1993) Frames of Mind, The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Publishhed by Fontana Press
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