Reinforcement In Psychology

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Reinforcement is the process of encouraging behavior based upon a positive or negative reward. Through reinforcement, behavior can be altered through a series of rewards, as seen in B.F. Skinner, and Pavlov's experiments. B.F. Skinner used conditioning to test the response of a rat. In this test, a rat is placed in a box. Through positive or negative reinforcement, the rat touches the lever, and either get a food pellet or an electrical shock. The response alters the rat's likelihood to touch the lever. In Pavlov's experiment, he conditioned things such as time, a sound, and food. The dogs he used in his experiment were given food every time they either heard a bell ring, or at a certain time of the day. Pavlov then began to ring …show more content…

Humans are not exactly like animals, and have simple behavior. Humans have a very complex thought process, and each individual has unique behavior. This behavior makes it very difficult to make quantitative tests, or even self-report tests. A test that may be done with humans could be seen in everyday life, such as children with homework. A study may keep track of the number of children who accomplish their homework with varied results such as internet access, or a punishment type of result such as extra studying. If a child is allowed to access the internet, if they finish their homework may influence a child to be more likely to finish their homework, opposed to a child who is forced to study an extended amount after the homework is finished. A positive component of this study would be the positive results of the children who receive benefit from doing their homework. The results would show the children would work harder and get their work done faster in order to receive internet access or a desire of the …show more content…

Random mating is the random mating of individuals within a species or between two species. Random mating allows gene flow to occur, which increases genetic difference. Without random mating, species genetics tend to stay similar. Similar DNA allows for an increase in virus infection, as well as devastation within the species. In tests on animals, in which they were not forced, but persuaded to mate with a certain mate, through electric shocks when leaving the other, showed that there was a high increase in genetic similarity. This stops hybrids from being produced, which hybrids are the offspring of two species. Hybrids allow for genetic differentiation and the forming of new traits. This is very controversial in places such as zoos and places of animal preservation. Reinforcement on humans shows that they are also easily manipulated, much like animals. When humans are introduced to new subjects, they are not sure of what to think about it; without influence or previous experience. In operant conditioning, others can strengthen the results shown in response to a variable. Humans react very differently in different environments. Many people contend to reinforcement saying that it is very dangerous, as it influences certain features to be expressed. When someone begins reinforcement with children, they can influence them in any way they desire, this is because the child

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