Operant conditioning is a type of learning where a person is taught that specific actions are related to specific consequences. The main goal of using this type of conditioning is to encourage the individual to change his or her behavior in some way. Specifically, the individual can be encouraged to perform a desired behavior more often through use of positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement, and he or she can also be encouraged to perform an undesired behavior less often through use of positive punishment and negative punishment. Positive reinforcement is basically a type of operant conditioning in which an addition or reward is given to the individual when he or she has displayed the desired behavior, and as a result, the behavior …show more content…
The goal of using positive reinforcement in this situation would be to encourage the students to behave in a kind and respectful manner in hopes that their disrespectful behavior would decrease. To achieve this goal, I believe it would be best to use positive reinforcement to reward the students whenever they do behave like they should. For example, if I, as the teacher, were asking questions in class, I would compliment the students or even give them a physical reward, such as candy, when they raise their hands in a calm manner to answer questions. Not only would this encourage their participation in class, but it would encourage them to participate in a respectful manner. The use of a reward, physical or otherwise, could also be applied to situations where the students perform any desired behavior such as doing their work quietly. By using positive reinforcement, it makes sense that the more the students are encouraged to act kindly and respectfully, the less often they will act …show more content…
With negative reinforcement, when the students act politely, I would basically take something away from them that they had a negative attitude towards in the first place. If there is a student in the class who has a particularly bad habit of talking back to me and making up his own rules, then by using negative reinforcement, my goal would be to encourage him to behave more politely, like by not talking back. So, if this student displays polite behavior such as following my rules instead of his own on three separate occasions, then he will not have to complete one homework assignment. I believe that this method could be applied to other situations as well, like telling the students that they do not have to complete a homework assignment if they answer questions calmly and by raising their hands on three separate occasions, as mentioned before. When using negative reinforcement, the students will want to have less of something they see as negative, like homework, so they should behave more
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Operant conditioning is a kind of conditioning, which examines how often a behavior will or occur depending on the effects of the behavior (King, 2016, pg. ). The words positive and negative are used to apply more significance to the words reinforcement or punishment. Positive is adding to the stimulus, while negative is removing from the stimulus (King, 2016). For instance, with positive reinforcement, there is the addition of a factor to increase the number of times that the behavior occurs (King, 2016). An example of positive reinforcement is when a child is given an allowance for completing their household chores. The positive reinforcement is the allowance which helps to increase the behavior of doing chores at home. In contrast with negative
Operant conditioning is when your behavior is based on consequences. If Zane has never been praised for playing his oboe well, then he might not be as confident as if he had been complimented. If he has gotten compliments from playing before then he is expected to do better during his evaluation.
Overall Operant conditioning can be used to describe the process as modifying behaviour through positive (rewards for behaviour) and negative (punishment for behaviour) reinforcement. Burrhus Skinner was someone who investigated operant conditioning, he believed to really understand behaviour that you need to look at actions and consequences of behaviour. Burrhus skinner investigated his theory of operant conditioning with a rat. Skinner created a box in which the box contained a lever which released a food pellet when pressing down on the lever, which makes it a positive reinforcement as food isn’t a punishment its shown as a good thing when receiving food especially for animals. The Rat would be left in the box to figure out for itself that the lever would release food when pressed. To begin with the rat would accidentally press the lever and after a few times the rat quickly figured out that every time the lever is pressed they will receive food. After the rat realised the lever would release food it would result in the rat repeatedly pressing the lever. Skinner also investigated negative reinforcement, he did this by running a low electrical current through the box, then placing a rat within the box. When the lever was to be pressed the electric current would be switched off. When the rat would be placed in the box it would accidentally press the lever. Eventually the rats would learn to press down the lever to ensure they wouldn’t receive an electrical
Reinforcement is the outcome or influence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior. Regarding the roommate’s behavioral modification program, there will be a positive and negative reinforcement utilized. Negative reinforcement is the removal of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of behavior, and positive reinforcement is the addition of stimuli that also strengthens the probability of behavior. Because the roommate is trying to lose weight with the removal of unhealthy food and addition of healthy food, the positive reinforcement will be unhealthy food, and the negative reinforcement will be the healthy
Operant conditioning, which is called instrumental conditioning; similar to ontogenetic selection (B.F. Skinner), is a type of learning to obtain an achieved behavior as goal-oriented; strengthens behavior through rewards or punishments. These rewards and punishments that control behaviors are antecedents (discriminative stimuli) signaling those consequences. All life forms strive for goal-oriented conditioning The bacterium finds its way, somewhat inefficiently, up a chemical gradient; the dog begs for a bone; the politician reads the polls to guide his campaign (Wikipedia). The examples given are known as ontogenetic selection that is guided by consequences through a lifeform 's life.
Reinforcement and punishment shape the way we perceive the world around us and are huge components to how we learn. Therefore, it is vital to understand the difference and how they apply to different situations. Before comparing the two categories, we must grasp a better understanding of each of them separately.
Penny picked up Sheldon’s dinner plate and took it to the sink and with positive reinforcement Sheldon gave Penny a piece of chocolate for her good behavior. The second time Penny did a good deed for Sheldon Penny got another piece of chocolate. Positive reinforcement was repeated in the episode to fix undesired behaviors, the problem with the episode was that Sheldon misrepresented negative reinforcement. Punishment is mistakenly identified as negative reinforcement, negative reinforcement is not punishment. Reinforcement increases behavior, punishment decreases behavior. Positive reinforcement adds a desirable stimulus reward to increase behavior. Negative reinforcement removes an undesirable stimulus (e.g. stops pain) to also increase the behavior (e.g. taking a pain pill). Punishment is a consequence that causes the behavior to decrease, not increase. Punishment is not negative reinforcement. When Sheldon says he could use electric shock to punish Penny that it would be negative reinforcement and that statement is misleading. If Sheldon would have said I can take something away from Penny that is high value to her and reinforce her behavior into good behavior then give that high valued possession back to Penny than that would have been considered negative reinforcement. Negative and positive reinforcement aims at increasing the likelihood that a
In the video “When the Chips are down” by Rick Lavoie, I learned not only the same information as mentioned above but also helpful solutions that Rick Lavoie offered for teachers in how to respond with negative and positive student behavior. The presenter suggested among the following that teachers: restrain from yelling too much, as that might leave students to be less responsive over time; to extend verbal praise and other positive reinforcement as change from negative behavior; reinforce behavior progressively as the child makes steps towards positive behavior; set deadline incentive challenges to have the student complete tasks with positive behavior; and also the ‘broken record technique’ in which to state the rule 3 times to the offending student after indicating the infraction that was committed by the
Operant behavior is the behavior that leads to consequences of either reinforcement or punishment. The operant behavior in my roommate situation is Tori leaving her books and notebooks all over the room. Operant conditioning is the association between the behavior and the consequences
Operant conditioning is how we learn to associate our own behavior with a consequence so there are four possibilities. One, positive reinforcement; two, positive punishment; three, negative reinforcement; and four, negative punishment. Let’s break those 2 possibilities down to a more basic component. Positive and negative does not mean “good” or “bad” (De O'Laughlin, 2012). Positive means to give, fo...
First, be sure to recognize the difference between reinforcement and punishment. To increase the desired behavior, reinforcement should be used. Punishment is used to decrease unwanted behaviors. Second, when an adult begins to use positive reinforcement and ignoring the inappropriate behavior, some students may begin to exhibit behavior that get worst. This abnormal behavior is referred to as “extinction burst”. The student is acting out in an effort to generate the reinforcement they use to get from the adult. Thirdly, teachers and adults should use positive reinforces that are attainable quickly and easily. Sometimes, food is not accessible and is not appropriate so positive phrases work well. Lastly, inappropriate behaviors should always be ignored, unless they are
.... I feel that in most cases, once a student has been punished through negative reinforcement for doing wrong, the student will attempt to correct such behavior in the future to avoid punishment. In addition, positive reinforcement should be given for those students who are the majority and behave, as well as for the students who are occasional troublemakers because positive reinforcement helps show what is correct behavior in response to bad behavior.
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are different learning methods. The two methods have the word conditioning in common. What is conditioning? Conditioning is the acquisition of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli. Both classical and operant conditioning are basic forms of learning. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to transfer a natural response from one stimulus to another, previously neutral stimulus. Manipulating reflexes does this. Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which the likelihood of a behavior is increased or decreased by the use of reinforcement or punishment. Operant conditioning deals with more cognitive thought process.
In contrast to classical conditioning, operant conditioning, discovered by B.F Skinner, is a learning process that involves either an increase or decrease in some behavior as a result of consequences (Amabile, 1985). Operant conditioning attempts to elicit new behavior through use of reinforcers and punishments.