Cardinal Wolsey virtually ruled England until his failure to secure the papal annulment that Henry needed to marry Anne Boleyn in 1533. Wolsey was quite capable as Lord Chancellor, but his own interests were served more than that of the king: as powerful as he was, he still was subject to Henry's favor - losing Henry's confidence proved to be his downfall. The early part of Henry's reign, however, saw the young king invade France, defeat Scottish forces at the Battle of Foldden Field (in which James IV of Scotland was slain), and write a treatise denouncing Martin Luther's Reformist ideals, for which the pope awarded Henry the title "Defender of the Faith". The 1530's witnessed Henry's growing involvement in government, and a series of events which greatly altered England, as well as the whole of Western Christendom: the separation of the Church of England from Roman Catholicism.
A wise and successful leader, he says, should not use auxiliaries or mercenaries, as they will always lack unity and their true loyalty is always uncertain. For auxiliary troops, their loyalty is always to a rival, whom may betray the leader at any time. Wise leaders also do not consider a victory with outside help to be a true victory. (The Prince, Chapter 13, pg.49) For mercenaries, their loyalty is to whoever can offer them the most. (The Prince, Chapter 12, pg.43) Machiavelli reinforces this key idea with two examples.
Before examining how the interaction of violence and politics lead to morality in the end, it is important to analyze exactly what Machiavelli demands of his Prince. First and foremost, Machiavelli harps upon the concept of fortune and virtue. By fortune, he means that everything is left to chance, while nothing will guarantee that a certain event will occur. Machiavelli writes that a “Great long standing Prince never rules with fortune.” Through risk and chance, one leaves him open to failure; thus action should be withheld if an element of chance is involved. Machiavelli ties virtue very closely to that of prudence.
Some see Montesquieu “The Spirit of the Laws” book as a critique of the royal power, or the vision for a new reform. Francois-Marie Arouet de Voltaire was a writer historian and a famous philosopher. Many of Voltaire essays contain big criticism of the Catholic Church; he saw the religion as an essential power to the public morals. Jean Jacque Rousseau was philosopher writer and composer. He criticizes the Old Regime and the monarchy in his book “The Second Discourse on The Origins of the Inequality “he argued that the tyrant monarch could be turned out because of his subjects.
This was a threat to the power of the king. The different policies of the kings also affected the rise and fall of the French Monarchy. The combination of class struggles, the enlightenment, and different policies of the kings were major contributing factors in the rise and fall of the French Monarchy. The first of the kings to deal with these problems was King Henry IV, who was an honorble ruler. Henry IV was king of France between 1589 and 1610.
He was the grandchild of Catherine of Valois, who was the widow of Owen Tudor and King Henry V. Henry married Elizabeth of York who was Edward IV’s daughter. This caused the merging of the two houses and was known as the end of the Wars of the Roses. Today, there is a small percent of doubt that the Wars cause a political uprising and made a difference in the balance of power. One of the main effects was that the Plantagenet dynasty was crushed and was replaced by the Tudor dynasty. The war was very bad for England on the already deteriorating relationship with France, and over the years the few props that were earned vanished when Queen Mary reigned.
The Party needs to mold and shape these people so they are able to go through with their plans of ultimate control of all aspects of a persons life. They want no kind of individualism because of the fear of rebellion, which is what Winston has conformed to. He upholds his identity with his diary. He expresses himself and allows his thought to come out more freely. Winston knows that he is breaking the law of the Party and is afraid, but he still does it.
Machiavelli influenced Rousseau in the context of political economy and social contract. During the sixteenth century the political foundation was of interest to Machiavelli. He wrote, “The Prince” as a guide to political power. It was his analysis on how a powerful ruler could be created. Although most seen his writing as harsh, it allowed others the idea of what they believed the perfect civilized government should look like.
If your people can’t stand you, you will not be in a position of greatness, and if it comes down to it Machiavelli says “it’s better to be feared then hated”. Machiavelli’s point for aspiring leaders is that they must adopt a new morality and virtu when ruling, basically stating that if you cannot get your hands dirty you should not bother going into politics. He argues that the prince’s only obligation is to protect his state, by any means necessary, and to never relax as the state is always under threat. Machiavelli says that when it comes to ruling, you should rule with the single focus of war, whenever you are at war with someone it distracts the masses from what you’re doing. If you are a leader you must be good at waging wars, for that demonstrates your skills as a leader that is willing to protect the people of your
Machiavelli’s the Prince is a 16th-century extended analysis of how to acquire and maintain political power. While many are cynical of Machiavelli’s intention when writing The Prince, the works of earlier writers seem to indicate that his piece was indeed a reflection on how a ruler ought to govern. The dedication declares Machiavelli's intention to discuss in plain language the conduct of great men and the principles of princely government. He states that he does so in hope of pleasing and enlightening the Medici family and offers it as a “some token of his devotion.” (Skinner) Italy was struggling with its limits on power and Machiavelli responded accordingly. His advice corresponds with his time and appears to be given in a genuine way.