The Industrial revolution was a time of drastic change marked by the general introduction of power-driven machinery. This change generally helped life, but it had its disadvantages as well. Pollution, such as Carbon Dioxide levels in the atmosphere rose, working conditions declined, and the number of women and children working increased. The government, the arts, literature, music, architecture and man's way of looking at life all changed during this period. Two revolutions took place.
...ries were being made, hospital care improved. Anesthesia was first used to relieve pain during surgery in the late 1840s and allowed doctors to experiment with operations that had never been possible before. Florence Nightingale introduced sanitary procedures in hospitals, while Joseph Lister discovered how antiseptics counteracted infection. As industrialization moved forward, city life advanced. Paved streets, gas lamps, and electric street lights lined vast new squares and boulevards that bettered security. Cities established police forces and fire protection, and sewage systems underneath the streets made cities much healthier. Since the standard of living rose, families ate more diverse diets, lived in excelling homes, and dressed in low-cost, bulk-produced clothing (Ellis, Gaynor, and Esler). The Industrial Revolution was the start of a whole new world to come.
...not on governments, but on men of initiative, determination, ambition, vision, resourcefulness, single-mindedness, and (not infrequently) good, honest greed” (117). The Industrial Revolution, led by Great Britain, greatly changed the existing attitude of powerlessness towards nature to one of power because now people were able to produce enough goods and food to support the expanding population. The ability to produce a surplus that arose from the ongoing industrialization meant that people no longer had to worry over nature and its effects on the economy. The Industrial Revolution led by Great Britain radically changed Europe's social and economic ways of life and provided the impetus for the tremendous progress of the 19th century.
The industrial revolution was marked by a shift of power. The power source before the revolution was human power. Human and animal muscle was the driving force behind all forms of production. At first, machinery saw an increase in manual labor in the form of railway production and canal excavations. Ultimately, the introduction of machinery resulted in a decline in subjugated men and instead man’s intellectual capacity was being utilized.
The industrial revolution impacted daily life, politics, and gender relations. During the industrial revolution, humanity had turned to machines for production instead of people because they where able to produce things more quickly and efficiently. The three main concentration areas in the industrial revolution were transportation, industry, and market. During the nineteenth century, the United States were the industrializing nation because of the outcome of the War of 1812. Therefore, America needed to improve its infrastructure. The industrializing nations were India, China, and Brazil. They were going through it while the lowest life expectancy nation, central Africa, was non-industrialized. England started industrializing around the 1780s that spread to France, German, U.S, and Canada. Their first invention was the steam powered ships, engines, and railroads. Later in the 1860s, the internal combustible engines were introduced. The Market R...
The most far-reaching, influential transformation of human culture since the advent of agriculture eight or ten thousand years ago, was the industrial revolution of eighteenth century Europe. The consequences of this revolution would change irrevocably human labor, consumption, family structure, social structure, and even the very soul and thoughts of the individual. This revolution involved more than technology; to be sure, there had been industrial "revolutions" throughout European history and non-European history. In Europe, for instance, the twelfth and thirteenth centuries saw an explosion of technological knowledge and a consequent change in production and labor. However, the industrial revolution was more than technology-impressive as this technology was. What drove the industrial revolution were profound social changes, as Europe moved from a primarily agricultural and rural economy to a capitalist and urban economy, from a household, family-based economy to an industry-based economy. This required rethinking social obligations and the structure of the family; the abandonment of the family economy, for instance, was the most dramatic change to the structure of the family that Europe had ever undergone-and we're still struggling with these changes. In 1750, the European economy was overwhelmingly an agricultural economy. The land was owned largely by wealthy and frequently aristocratic landowners; they leased the land to tenant farmers who paid for the land in real goods that they grew or produced. Most non-agricultural goods were produced by individual families that specialized in one set of skills: wagon-wheel manufacture, for instance. Most capitalist activity focused on mercantile activity rather than production; there was, however, a growing manufacturing industry growing up around the logic of mercantilism. The European economy, though, had become a global economy. In our efforts to try to explain why the Industrial Revolution took place, the globalization of the European economy is a compelling explanation. European trade and manufacture stretched to every continent except Antarctica; this vast increase in the market for European goods in part drove the conversion to an industrial, manufacturing economy. Why other nations didn't initially join this revolution is in part explained by the monopolistic control that the Europeans exerted...
Horn, Jeff, Leonard N. Rosenband, and Merritt Roe Smith. Reconceptualizing the Industrial Revolution. Dibner Institute Studies in the History of Science and Technology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2010.
During the Industrial boom of the early 1700’s, no one would have thought that these inventions and ideas could shape the world we live in today, especially then. You do not have to be a historian to know that, with new inventions comes more money; so economically this was revolutionary. For example, the lathe is the oldest and simplest known machine tool. Normally used by carpenters, these were used to make decorative table legs, columns, etc. It was late 17th Century when clockmakers, builders of scientific instruments, and furniture and gun makers began to use the lathe for other than cutting wood. They now made it possible to machine steel and very effectively. The development of precise machine tools, such as compass and telescope, greatly affected the art of navigation and help begin the process for the industrial machine tools of the late 18th and early l9th Centuries. These being the working class citizens, they began to make a little more money a bit easier. With the hard working class making money, their lives begin to brighten in this dim world, families expanding, and people begin to open their eyes. The huge gap between aristocrats and the working class is beginning to close but will not until much later.
By the 1750's, the industrial Revolution had begun. At first, inventions were strictly limited to cotton weaving. Inventions such as the spinning jenny and the water-powered frame, both of which provided spinning yarn faster, the spinning mule, the power loom and the cotton gin, all helped the manufacture of cotton goods by speeding up the process. Mass production had begun, along with capitalism. Capitalist, people who have their own materials, money and space, bought many machines and stored them in a factory, where hired people worked the whole day manufacturing goods. The factory system had replaced the cottage industry. Mass production made usually expensive items, such as shoes, less expensive and easily affordable by lower class and less wealthy people.
One of the major events of the 17 centuries was the industrial revolution of Europe. “The industrial revolution began in England in the 1770s and 1780s in textile manufacturing and spread from there across the continent” (Hunt, 2012, 686). This revolution was marked by three parts each of which was associated with different regions as well as technology. The structure of the economy changed along with technological innovations. New types of investments shifted the focus to the manufacturing in the newly built large-scale factories.
Sylla, Richard Toniolo, Gianni. Patterns of European Industrialization: The nineteenth century. New York: Routledge, 1991.