In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the Industrial Revolution in Europe had a significant influence on society. There were many changes in social classes and equality. The rise of the middle class had a momentous effect on the population of Europe and was a catalyst for many changes in the social makeup of the region. The influence of technology and electricity changed many aspects of social interaction and created a new class system. The migration of workers and the separation of the classes had political and social repercussions throughout Europe. Labor unions and political parties provided protection and a voice to many of the working class, and urbanization provided the stage for reformers to push for modernized cities. Women in this era also had distinct differences in their treatment and standing regardless of their social class. Two of the key social concerns of this new industrial era in Europe mainly revolved around the emerging social classes and the equality of women. With the advent of technology and the new capitalistic trends of second industrial revolution in Europe, the era became known as the “age of the middle classes” (719). During this time, the middle class was no longer a “revolutionary group” threatening the ruling class. They showed their power through spending and buying goods in what is referred to as consumer taste (719). The middle class during this era transformed and evolved into an assortment of groups. The most successful of the middle class were the business and bank owners, who lived in majesty and eventually surpassed many of the former ruling classes in the aristocracy. In this highest class, there was only a few hundred families that had such wealth and power. The small busine... ... middle of paper ... ... able to receive the right qualifications to get into most universities. “Women themselves were often hesitant to support feminist causes or expanded opportunities for females because they had been so thoroughly acculturated into the recently stereotyped roles.” (729) This mindset shows how dominating men could be to women during this time. Men feared that women would overcrowd the educated, professional placement in society and that it would change the role of women in the home. The second industrial revolution in Europe was a time of unprecedented change. The change in technology, education, and lifestyle had significant influence on social issues. Workers migrated to the cities, traditional family roles changed, and the new middle class gained influence through their buying power. The middle class was changing due to urbanization of the cities and migration
...oint of view, the industrial revolution highlighted the importance of the working class by bringing huge changes in economic structure and tremendous growth. This made possible the latter system change and political transformation. In this period , the workers began to think about their own lives, to learn knowledge, and initiated a more organized and more systematic campaign to safeguard their own interests, came completely out of the no wisdom, petty and low image of peasants under under the old regime.
The Industrial Revolution has brought a major transformation to the American society. New technologies and advancements changed the way Americans viewed their world. Gender issues, social class, immigration, relations with Native Americans, and slavery were either positively or negatively impacted by the revolution. Nevertheless, the United States’ huge step toward progress during the Industrial Revolution made a lasting impression in American society.
The Industrial Revolution in Britain’s history is marked as the period of great development that led to the modern era of growth, improved living standards and technology. Moreover, this revolution was not just limited to Britain; it affected the rest of Europe and America in the same positive manner. Due to the Industrial Revolution’s success in many countries, it is now commonly cited as the surest way for a country to develop. In economics, goals of a developed country are high production of goods, high Gross Domestic Product (GDP), low unemployment and sustained growth; during an Industrial Revolution all these are achieved. However, despite the main goal of IR to improve living standards for the population, the actual success when weighed against the social cost is debatable. It is accepted that IR improved the living standards of many; it created a new class, which Marx called the “bourgeoisie”, who had control over wealth, decisions and helped improve the lives of many others. However, many historians view this new class as “rapacious landlords and conscienceless capitalist[s]”  who exploited the working class for their own benefit. For a majority of “the working class… ‘Industrial Revolution’ … must have appeared… as a gigantic and cruel experiment, which, insofar as it was affecting their house, their health, their subsistence and their pleasure, was proving a calamitous failure” . Therefore, this group will be examined to determine more general effects of IR on the society.
Another idea that came about in the Industrial Revolution was that of a Middle Class. Previously, there were only two classes. The rich, which included nobility and business owners. The second class was the peasants. This was almost everyone not included in the first class. With the creation of factories, a new class was made. This new middle class consisted of people who worked in places such as factories. People belonging to this calss did not fall into either of the two previous classes. 14
The Industrial Revolution was a transformation from agrarian and handicraft-centered economies into economies distinguished by industry and machine manufacture (Bentley and Ziegler 652). It first began in Britain during the mid-eighteenth century and lasted through the nineteenth century (Bentley and Ziegler 652-653). Although the Industrial Revolution was a drastic and ongoing process, does not mean it was an unproblematic change. Many people during this time period experienced positive and negative effects throughout this development.
No development in modern history has altered European society more than the Industrial Revolution. The onset of this revolution not only dramatically increased the efficiency of production, but it altered European’s wealth and urban populations while creating numerous jobs. A new, complex social system resulted that created composed of two different phases. At the onset of the revolution, a wealthy middle class overpowered a large urban working class that comprised of men, women, and children. However, as the revolution furthered, the once united working class was further divided between skilled and unskilled workers. Also, the spheres of men and women no longer intertwined and females were to remain at home and tend to family matters. The Industrial Revolution ultimately changed the social hierarchy of European workers remarkably.
The Industrial Revolution was a time of great change and increased efficiency. No more would be goods be produced by sole means of farming and agriculture, but now by the use of machinery and factories. Technology was beginning to increase along with the food supply as well as the population. However, this increase in population would greatly impact the social aspect of that time. Urbanization was becoming much more widespread. Cities were becoming overwhelmingly crowded and there was an increase in disease as well as harsh child labor. Although child labor would be reduced somewhat due to unions, the Industrial Revolution still contained both it’s positive and negative results.
The drastic increase in productive development characterized by the industrial revolution of the 19th century brought two major sociopolitical changes to Europe by the middle of the century. First, the industrial revolution gave rise to a middle class that would eventually become the driving political and economic force throughout Europe. Secondly, the industrial revolution demanded productive entities exploit the extensive influx of people into major urban areas in order to maintain competitive advantages and meet rising demand for European goods in domestic and foreign markets; such exploitation created an extensive urban social class that had no political power and little or none economic freedom.
Starting in the early 18th century in England, the Industrial Revolution grew from their rich supply of coal and iron, which were used for energy. This coal and iron was conducive to the rise of factories that rose up all over the world. Rise in population and the switch from an agricultural society to an industrialized society pushed people to flock from their farmlands to industrialized cities looking for work. Many people immigrated to different countries, particularly to the western countries, in hopes of finding better jobs to support their families who stayed behind. For example, many people from China immigrated to the United States to work on the railroad tracks that extended all over the country. Human labor was needed to run the machines in factories. The Industrial Revolution created new social classes-the middle class and the working class. The middle class consisted of the people who owned their own industries such as railroads and factories while the working classes were the people who worked for the middle class, doing the actual hard labor. Life for the middle class was not as hard...
The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, and technology went through a period of significant change. These changes had a profound impact on the social and cultural conditions of the time, beginning in the Untied Kingdom and spreading throughout Western Europe, North America, and the rest of the world. The Industrial Revolution, considered a major turning point in history, effected almost every aspect of daily life; through new discoveries in technology came new jobs; through new jobs came new working conditions; through new working conditions came new laws and new politics, the repercussions of which extend to today. As Crump emphasizes: ‘The world as we have come to know it in the twenty-first century is impossible to understand without looking at the foundations laid – mainly in the English-speaking world of the eighteenth century – in the course of what is now known, but not then, as the ‘Industrial Revolution’ .
In the Victorian Era, the industrious workers of the middle and working classes had to do strenuous tasks in order to take care for the families and have a complacent lifestyle. On the contrary, the upper classes were wealthy landowners who often did not work and often subdued themselves to different luxurious indulgences. In the 2nd Industrial Revolution, the rich indulged in luxuries while the middle and working classes need to work to cater for themselves.
Before the beginning of the eighteenth century, Europe was in dire need of a transformation. One that would change their style of life, not only for the well being of the countries, but for the people as well. This transformation could mean the development of nations into world powers. This need was fulfilled by one word, industrialization. Perhaps the biggest change in history was the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century. This was not only carrying economic changes, but social changes as well. This extensive mechanization from home manufacturing to large-scale factory production was without doubt, the largest conversion for labor fabrication.
The advent of the Industrial revolution in Europe led to many structural changes in society. Sociology identifies the new society that came after the period of industrial revolution as the industrial society. The following essay will analyse the rise of a new Post-industrial society and how linked or delinked it is from the former industrial period. But first let us understand the structure of the industrial society.