The Industrial Revolution was a drawn-out process that transformed Britain’s economy from the production of goods by hand to the production of goods by machine (Thackerary 1). During this time the number of people employed in industrial manufacturing, making many different goods, and especially making textiles, iron goods, metal waves, and pottery increased dramatically (McCloskey Int.). At the end of the 17th Century, Britain owed more to revenue demands than protectionism. After the Bubble Act of 1720, company flotation was prohibited and publically raised the capital in manufacturing (Mathias 33,34). The increase of social cost of transition to the increasingly industrial urbanized economy was due to the lack of public control over growing towns and the lags of development of essential public services, from small denomination currency to an effective police force and local government.
The rising of the market economy occurred between the end of the War of 1812 and the Civil War. It was a time of uprising for Americans of the United States. There were changes in the vast improvement in transportation, the growth of factories, and there were important developments of new technology that increased agricultural production. Americans advanced into new areas and produced an agricultural surplus that went to market farming. In the nineteenth century, manufacturing was the most important factor because it brought about industrialization.
An era of new beginnings was created when industrialization swept through Great Britain starting in the 1760’s. This vast transition included a change in hand production to machine production, brand new chemical and iron production processes, an improvement in water power, major increases in the use of steam power, the development of machine tools, and the conversion towards coal as the major source of fuel. Not only was “he Industrial Revolution an evolving transformation in many sectors of the economy” (Atkins 1), but across the board, aspects of daily life were changed by the Industrial Revolution, and it led to not only economic prosperity, but radical social changes and increased political stratification. The Industrial Revolution effected the economic sector of Britain by radically changing how the textile industry manufactured its goods. Before the revolution, the industry was comprised of individual workers hand growing, picking, and spinning cotton.
The invention of machinery and the idea of mass production became a staple of the industrial revolution. The point of this essay is to analyze the industrial revolution from its starting years-1760s-to the late 19th century. This would mainly be focusing on areas such as child labor, Factory Acts and the government. By analyzing how people’s lives especially children were affected by this growing industry and how socio- economic theories dominant during these times controlled the development of the industrial revolution, we could see how and why the working class were immensely affected and how this problem is consequently solved. This revolution was accompanied by numerous consequences ranging from economic to social effects.
The aims of this paper are to evaluate the effects the Industrial Revolution had on the wider world. This essay will be assessing the impact of technology and innovation on employment of the era, and how the factory system gave rise to socialism. In addition, it will be evaluating how the Industrial Revolution was the precursor to the phenomenon of consumerism and the resulting globalization. The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, and technology went through a period of significant change. These changes had a profound impact on the social and cultural conditions of the time, beginning in the Untied Kingdom and spreading throughout Western Europe, North America, and the rest of the world.
The Industrial Revolution was responsible for the many aspects changed in Britain throughout the late 18th and early 19th century. Industrial and agricultural production was increased due the progressions of technology. England was aided by the Revolution replacing hands on work with machine work, which consequently amplified its manufactured goods productivity. With this impact on the England, its society was altered economically, socially, and politically. For ages the British economy was ruled by agriculture.
This economic growth, also called the commercial revolution, helped to fuel the industrial revolution of the eighteenth century by “Providing large and expanding markets for European industries” (p. 409) The commercial revolution created the need for new technology to meet the demands of the new and ever changing markets created by the European expansion. The commercial revolution also “Contributed the large amounts of capital necessary to finance the construction of factories and machines for the industrial revolution.” (p. 409) The industrial revolution began in the late eighteenth century with the invention of the steam engine by James Watt. Thanks to the steam engine, people were now able to harness the power needed to run pumps, locomotives and eventually machines used in factories. “It (the steam engine) provided a means for harnessing and utilizing heat energy to furnish driving power for machines.” (p. 412) The British quickly moved to the forefront of the industrial revolution due to their investment in the coal and iron industries. England was also at the forefront of modern banking due to the large amounts of profit from commerce that the British experienced.
As is human nature, major change was met with great resistant. Ultimately, the most successful people during the transition were those that adapted quickly. The industrial revolution is often mistakenly thought of simply as a time period when science was becoming more organized and resulted in the production of new machinery. The Industrial revolution was a period when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had a profound effect on socioeconomic and cultural conditions. The Industrial revolution denoted a major turning point in human social history as nearly every aspect of daily life and human society was influenced in some way.
The First Industrial Revolution: Progressing Society The First Industrial Revolution modified every aspect of daily life. According to Princeton University “Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants” (Princeton par. 6). The First Industrial Revolution brought along machines, a capitalist economy, and trade expansion. Machines increased productivity, capitalist economies boomed with inventions, and trade expansion accelerated transportation with innovations.
The Industrial Revolution began in the mid eighteenth century (1750) and ran through to the early twentieth century. The revolution began in Great Britain and spread rapidly across Europe and America forever changing the world. It modified the way people both worked and lived. During the revolution social changes in agriculture and technological changes in the production of goods occurred. Revolutionary ideas also saw Great Britain become a dominant world power at the time.